Endnotes for The Old Testament Canon and the Apocrypha

Part 3: From Jerome to the Reformation


96 This is the twenty-second work of God. Jewish and Christian exegetes say that God performed twenty-two works. Out of which we counted a little earlier twenty-one works in six days. The twenty-second is the prepared kingdom of the future age and spiritual contemplation. On account of this they enumerate their entire Old Testament in twenty-two books. But they do not know why, nor do they know the mystery of the twenty-second number. Nor do they think that the number twenty consists of two perfect numbers or number tens, signifying that Christ, composed of two perfect parts (from divinity and humanity), wrote two testaments, the Mosaic Decalogue and the Gospel (Anastasius of Antioch, In Hexameron, VII. PG 89.940. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Hoc est enim vicesimum secundum Dei opus, viginti enim duo opera fecisse Deum dicunt, et Judaeorum et Christianorum interpretes. Ex quibus quidem viginti et unum jam paulo ante enumeravimus facta in sex diebus. Vicesimum autem secundum est futuri saeculi paratum regnum, et spiritualis contemplatio. Propterea viginti quoque duobus libris enumerat omne Vetus suum Testamentum. Sed neque novit quamobrem, neque scit mysterium vicesimi secundi numeri. Neque cogitat quod vicesimus quidem numerus constat ex duobus perfectis numeris seu numerus denariis, significans Christum ex duobus perfectis compositum (ex divinitate, inquam, et humanitate) duo testamenta scripsisse; Mosaicum, inquam, Decalogum, et Evangelium (Anastasius of Antioch, In Hexameron, VII. PG 89.940).

97 NPNF2, Vol. 14, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, The Canons of the Holy and Ecumenical Seventh Council, Canon I, p. 555.

98 Charles Joseph Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1895), Volume IV, p. 242.

99 NPNF2, Vol. 14, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, The Canons of the Holy and Ecumenical Seventh Council, Canon I, Notes, p. 556.

100 It has also seemed good to this holy Council, that the eighty-five canons, received and ratified by the holy and blessed Fathers before us, and also handed down to us in the name of the holy and glorious Apostles should from this time forth remain firm and unshaken for the cure of souls and the hearing of disorders. And in these canons we are bidden to receive the Constitutions of the Holy Apostles written by Clement. But formerly through the agency of those who erred from the faith certain adulterous matter was introduced, clean contrary to piety, for the polluting of the Church, which obscures the elegance and beauty of the divine decrees in their present form. We therefore reject these Constitutions so as the better to make sure of the edification and security of the most Christian flock; by no means admitting the offspring of heretical error, and cleaving to the pure and perfect doctrine of the Apostles. But we set our seal likewise upon all the other holy canons set forth by our holy and blessed Fathers, that is, by the 318 holy God-bearing Fathers assembled at Nice, and those at Ancyra, further those at Neocesarea and likewise those at Gangra, and besides, those at Antioch in Syria: those too at Laodicea in Plirygia: and likewise the 150 who assembled in this heaven-protected royal city: and the 200 who assembled the first time in the metropolis of the Ephesians, and the 630 holy and blessed Fathers at Chalcedon.
In like manner those of Sardica, and those of Carthage: those also who again assembled in this heaven-protected royal city under its bishop Nectarius and Theophilus Archbishop of Alexandria. Likewise too the Canons [i.e. the decretal letters] of Dionysius, formerly Archbishop of the great city of Alexandria; and of Peter, Archbishop of Alexandria and Martyr; of Gregory the Wonder-worker, Bishop of Neocaesarea; of Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria; of Basil, Archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia; of Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa; of Gregory Theologus; of Amphilocius of lconium ; of Timothy, Archbishop of Alexandria; of Theophilus, Archbishop of the same great city of Alexandria; of Cyril, Archbishop of the same Alexandria ; of Gennadius, Patriarch of this heaven-protected royal city. Moreover the Canon set forth by Cyprian, Archbishop of the country of the Africans and Martyr, and by the Synod under him, which has been kept only in the country of the aforesaid Bishops according to the custom delivered down to them. And that no one be allowed to transgress or disregard the aforesaid canons, or to receive others beside them, supposititiously set forth by certain who have attempted to make a traffic of the truth. But should any one be convicted of innovating upon, or attempting to overturn, any of the aforementioned canons, he shall be subject to receive the penalty which that canon imposes, and to be cured by it of his transgression (NPNF2, Vol. 14, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, The Canons of the Council of Trullo, Canon II, p. 361).

101 Let the following books be counted venerable and sacred by all of you, both clergy and Laity. Of the Old Testament, five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; of Joshua the Son of Nun, one; of the Judges, one; of Ruth, one; of the Kings, four; of the Chronicles of the book of the days, two; of Ezra, two; of Esther, one; [some texts read 'of Judith, one'; of the Maccabees, three; of Job, one; of the Psalter, one; of Solomon, three, viz.: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs; of the Prophets, twelve; of Isaiah, one; of Jeremiah, one; of Ezekiel, one; of Daniel, one. But besides these you are recommended to teach your young persons the Wisdom of the very learned Sirach. Our own books, that is, those of the New Testament, are: the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; fourteen Epistles of Paul; two Epistles of Peter; three of John; one of James, and one of Jude. Two Epistles of Clemens, and the Constitutions of me Clemens, addressed to you Bishops, in eight books, which are not to be published to all on account of the mystical things in them. And the Acts of us the Apostles (NPNF2, Vol. 14, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, The Apostolical Canons, Canon LXXXV).

102 Notitia librorum apocryphorum qui non recipiuntur: Liber qui appellatur Canones apostolorum, apocryphus (Decretum Gelasianum: De Libris Recipiendis et Non Recipiendis. PL 59:163).
Liber qui appellatur Canones apostolorum, apocryphus (Decretale, In Urbe Roma ab Hormisda Papa. PL 62:540).
Regarding the rejection of the Apostolical Canons as apocryphal and therefore not canonical by Pope Hormisdas, Hefele states: 'Pope Hormisdas…explicitly declared the Apostolic Canons to be apocryphal' (Charles Joseph Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1895), Vol. 1, p. 451).

103 NPNF2, Vol. 14, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Appendix Containing Canons and Rulings not Having Conciliar Origin But Approved by Name in Canon II of the Synod of Trullo, Appendix VIII, From the Iambics of St. Amphilochius the Bishop to Seleucus, on the Same Subject (The Canon of Holy Scripture), Note, p. 612.

104 Observe, further, that there are two and twenty books of the Old Testament, one for each letter of the Hebrew tongue. For there are twenty-two letters of which five are double, and so they come to be twenty-seven...And thus the number of the books in this way is twenty-two, but is found to be twenty-seven because of the double character of five. For Ruth is joined on to Judges, and the Hebrews count them one book: the first and second books of Kings are counted one: and so are the third and fourth books of Kings: and also the frirst and second of Paraleipomena: and the first and second of Esdra. In this way, then, the books are collected together in four Pentateuchs and two others remain over, to form thus the canonical books. Five of them are of the Law, viz. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. This which is the code of the Law, constitutes the first Pentateuch. Then comes another Pentateuch, the so-called Grapheia, or as they are called by some, the Hagiographa, which are the following: Jesus the Son of Nave, Judges along with Ruth, first and second Kings, which are one book, third and fourth Kings, which are one book, and the two books of the Paraleipomena which are one book. This is the second Pentateuch. The third Pentateuch is the books in verse, viz. Job, Psalms, Proverbs of Solomon, Ecclesiastes of Solomon and the Song of Songs of Solomon. The fourth Pentateuch is the Prophetical books, viz the twelve prophets constituting one book, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel. Then come the two books of Esdra made into one, and Esther.
There are also the Panaretus, that is the Wisdom of Solomon, and the Wisdom of Jesus, which was published in Hebrew by the father of Sirach, and afterwards translated into Greek by his grandson, Jesus, the son of Sirach. These are virtuous and noble, but are not counted nor were they placed in the ark (Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, Nicene and Post-NiceneFathers (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1955), Series Two, Volume IX, John of Damascus, Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, Chapter XVII).

105 These were the divine Scriptures delivered into the canon by the Church and the number of their verses, as follows 1. Genesis has 4300 verses, 2. Exodus 2800, 3. Leviticus 2700, Numbers 3530, 5. Deuteronomy, 3100, 6. Joshua 2100, 7. Judges and Ruth 2050, 8. first and second Kings, 4240, 9. third and fourth Kings 2203, 10. first and second Chronicles 5500, 11. first and second Ezra 5500, 12. Psalms 5100, 13. Proverbs of Solomon 1700, 14. Ecclesiastes 7500, 15. Song of Songs 280, 16. Job 1800, 17. the prophet Isaiah 3800, 18. the prophet Jeremiah 4000, 19. Baruch 700, 20. Ezechiel 4000, 21. Daniel 2200, 22. the twelve prophets 3000. Total of the books of the Old Testament: 22.
These scriptures of the Old Testament are doubtful. 1. Three books of the Maccabees 7300 verses, 2. Wisdom of Solomon 100, 3. Wisdom of the Son of Sirach 2800, 4. Psalms and Songs of Solomon 2100, 5. Esther 350, 6. Judith 1700, 7. Susanna 500, 8. Tobit which is also Tobias, 700 (S. Nicephori Patriarchae CP, Chronographia Brevis, Quae Scripturae Canonicae I, II, PG 1057-1058. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
i. kai; o}sai eijsi; qeivai grafai; ejkklhsiazovmenai kai; kekanonismevnai, kai; hJ touvtwn sticometriva ou{tw~. - a v. Gevnesi~: stivcoi, dtv. - b v. [Exodo~: stivcoi, bw v. - g v. Leuitkovn: stivcoi, by v. - d v. jAriqmoiv: stivcoi, gfl v. - e v. Deuteronovmion: stivcoi, grv. - ~ v. jIhsou`~: stivcoi, br v. - z v. Kritai; kai; JRouvq: stivcoi, bn v. - h v. Basileiw`n av kai; b: stivcoi, dsm v. - q v. Basileiw`n g v kai; d v: stivcoi, bsg v. - i v. Paraleipovmena av kai; b v: stivcoi, ef v. - ia v. [Esdra~ a v kai; b v: stivcoi, ef v. - ib v. Bivblo~ Yalmw'n: stivcoi, ay v. - ig v. Paroimivai Solomw'nto~: stivcoi, ay v. - id v. jEkklhsiasthv~: stivcoi f v. - iev. j'Asma aj/smavtwn: stivcoi sp v. - i~ v. jIwb: stivcoi, aw v. - iz v. jHsaiva~ profhvth~: stivcoi, gw v. - ih v. jIeremiva~ profhvth~: stivcoi, d v. - iq v. Bapouvc: stivcoi, y v. - k v. jIezekihvl: stivcoi, d v. - ka v. Danihvl: stivcoi, b v. - kb v. OiJ dwvdeka profhvtai: stivcoi, g v. - JOmou` th`~ palaia`~ diaqhvkh~ bibliva ei[kosi duvo.
iii. Kai; o{sai ajntilevgontai th`~ palaia`~ auJtaiv eijsin. - a v. Makkabai>kav g v: stivcoi, zt v. - b v. Sofiva Solomw'nto~: stivcoi, ar v. - g v. Sofiva uiJou` tou` Sipavc: stivcoi, bw v. - d v. Yalmoi; kai; wj/dai; Solomw`nto~: stivcoi, br v. - e v. jEsqhjp: stivcoi tn v. - ~ v. Kai; jIoudhvq: stivcoi, ay v. z v. Swvsanna: stivcoi, f v. - h v. Twbh;t oJ kai; Tobiva~: stivcoi y v.
(S. Nicephori Patriarchae CP, Chronographia Brevis, Quae Scripturae Canonicae I, II, PG 1057-1058).
Latin Reference:
Quae divinae Scripturae ab Ecclesia, et in canonem relate sunt. Earumque versuum numerus, ut subjicitur. 1. Genesis versus habet 4300, 2. Exodus versus 2800, 3. Leviticus vers. 2700, 4. Numeri vers. 3530, 5. Deuteronomium vers. 3100, 6. Jesus vers. 2100, 7. Judices et Ruth vers. 2050, 8. Regnorum primus et secundus vers. 4240, 9. Regnorum tertius et quartus vers. 2203, 10. Paralipomenon primus et secundus vers. 5500, 11. Esdrae primus et secundus vers. 5500, 12. Liber Psalmorum vers. 5100, 13. Paroemiae Salamonis vers. 1700, 14. Ecclesiastes vers. 7500, 15. Canticum canticorum vers. 280, 16. Job vers. 1800, 17. Isaias propheta vers. 3800, 18. Jeremias propheta vers. 4000, 19. Baruch vers. 700, 20. Ezechiel vers. 4000, 21. Daniel vers. 2000, 22. Duodecim prophetae vers. 3000. Veteris Testamenti librorum summa 22.
Quae dubiantur Veteris testamenti. 1. Maccabaeorum libri tres vers. 7300, 2. Sapientia Salomonis vers. 100, 3. Sapientia filii Sirach vers. 2800, 4. Psalmi et Cantica Salomonis vers. 2100, 5. Esther (vers. 350), 6. Et Judith vers. 1700, 7. Sossana vers. 500, 8. Tobit qui et Tobias vers. 700 (S. Nicephori Patriarchae CP, Chronographia Brevis, Quae Scripturae Canonicae I, II, PG 1057-1058).

106 What books it is fitting to read in churches both the last canon of the apostles and the sixtieth of the synod of Laodicena have established. Also, Athanasius the Great enumerates all the books which were written as do Gregory Nazianzen and St. Amphilochius (Commentary on the Council of Carthage, Canon XXVII. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Quos libros legere in ecclesiis oporteat, et postremus apostolorum canon et Laodicenae synodi indesexagesimus statuit: et magnus Athanasius, qui libri legendi sint, omnes enumerat, et magnus Gregorius Theologus, et sanctus Amphilochius (Commentary on the Council of Carthage, Canon XXVII, PG 138:122).

107 How many books it is fitting to be read in church, seek out canons 40 and 85 of the holy apostles, canon 60 of the synod of Laodicena of St Gregory Nazianzen, and the canonical writings of Sts. Athanasius and Amphilochius (Commentary on the Council of Carthage, Canon XXVII. Translation by Benjamin Penciera, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Quosnam libros legi in ecclesia oporteat, quaere sanctorum apostolorum canones 40 et 85, Laod. syn. can. 60, sancti Gregorii Theologi ea quae metro scripsit, et sancti Athanasii canonica et sancti Amphilochii (Commentary on the Council of Carthage, Canon XXVII, PG 138:122).

108 Chapter 12. The Division of Holy Scripture According to Jerome. Holy authority according to Jerome is divided into two testaments, that is, into the Old and the New; into the Law, that is Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy; into the Prophets, which are Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, Daniel, and the books of the twelve prophets; into the Hagiography, which are Job, David, Solomon, Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus, Song of Songs, Chronicles, that is Paralipomenon, Ezra, and Esther; into the Gospels, which are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; after them follow the Epistles of the apostles, two of Peter, fourteen of Paul, three of John, one of James, one of Jude, one book of the Acts of the Apostles of Luke, and one book of the Apocalypse of John.
It should be clearly know that St. Jerome read and corrected the translation of various people for this reason, that he saw that they in no way resounded with Hebrew authority. Whence it was done that he translated with diligent care all the books of the Old Testament from the Hebrew source into Latin idiom. And he fittingly brought them to [us] in the same way that there are twenty-two letters that the Hebrew use, through which all wisdom is known and the written memory of things said in the past is preserved. To this are added the twenty-seven books of the New Testament, which are at once collected together into forty-nine. To this number add the omnipotent and indivisible Trinity, through which these things were done, and on account of which those things were foretold, and it doubtlessly makes the number fifty, which, in the likeness of the jubilee year, loosens debts out of the great piety of the generous and releases absolutely the sins of the penitent. We consider that this encyclopedia ought to have been written in a rather small hand in fifty-three gatherings of four sheets on account of the abundance of reading, so that what the abundant reading should hold out, the united compactness of writing might draw in. We ought also remember that the renowned Jerome structured his entire translation in holy authority (as he himself testifies) with punctuation and divisions on account of the simplicity of the brothers, so that those who understand very little of the ornamentation of secular literature, having been propped up by this remedy, might read aloud without fault these most sacred passages.
Chapter 13. The division of Scripture according to Augustine. Holy Scripture according to the blessed Augustine is divided into two Testaments, that is the Old and the New. In history there are twenty-two books, that is the five books of Moses, one book of Joshua, one book of Judges, on book of Ruth, four books of Kings, two books of Chronicles, one book of Job, one book of Tobit, one book of Esther, one book of Judith, two books of Ezra, and two books of Maccabees. In the Prophets there are twenty-two books, one book of the Psalms of David, four books of Solomon, one book of Jesus son of Sirach, the four major prophets, that is Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, and Daniel, and the twelve minor prophets, that is Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk, Sophonias, Zachariah, Aggeus, and Malachi. In the Epistles of the apostles there are twenty-one, that is one of the apostle Paul to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians, one to the Ephesians, one to the Philippians, two to the Thessalonians, one to the Colossians, two to Timothy, one to Titus, one to Philemon, one to the Hebrews; two letters of Peter, three of John, one of Jude, one of James. In the Gospels there are four books, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. In the Acts of the Apostles there is one book. In the Apocalypse there is one book. And so blessed Augustine in the second book of on Christian Doctrine understands divine Scriptures by the reckoning of seventy-one books according to the aforementioned nine volumes which the Church studies. When you add to these the unity of the Holy Trinity a fitting and glorious perfection of the entire book is made.
Chapter 14 The division of Scripture according to the old translation and according to the Septuagint. Holy Scripture according to the old translation is divided into two Testaments, that is into the Old and the New: into Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges; Ruth; four books of Kings; two books of Chronicles; the Psalter; five books of Solomon that is Proverbs, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, the Prophets, that is Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, Daniel, Osee, Amos, Micah, Joel, Abdias, Jonah, Nahm, Habakuk, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zachariah, Malachi, who was also an angel, Job, Tobit, Esther, Judith, two books of Ezra, two books of Maccabees. After these follow the four Evangelists, that is Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the Acts of the Apostles, the Letters of Peter to the Gentiles, of Jude, of James to the twelve tribes, of John to the Parthians, the letters of Paul, one to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, one to the Hebrews, two to the Thessalonians, two to Timothy, one to Titus, one to Philemon, the Apocalypse of John (M. Aurelii Cassiodori, De Institutione Divinarum Litterarum, Caput XII, XIII, XIV. PL 70:1122D-1125C. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Caput XII. Divisio Scripturae divinae secundum Hieronymum. Auctoritas divina secundum sanctum Hieronymum in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum. In Legem, id est, Genesim, Exodum, Leviticum, Numerorum, Deuteronomium. In Prophetas, qui sunt Jesu Nave, Judicum, Ruth, Samuel, Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, Daniel, libri duodecim prophetarum. In Hagiographos, qui sunt Job, David, Salomon, Proverbia, Ecclesiasticus, Canticum canticorum. Verba dierum, id est, Paralipomenon, Esdras, Esther. In Evangelistas, qui sunt Matthaeus, Marcus, Lucas, Joannes. Post hos sequuntur Epistolae apostolorum, Petri duae, Pauli quatuordecim, Joannis tres, Jacobi una, Judae una, Actuum apostolorum Lucae liber unus, et Apocalypsis Joannis liber unus.
Sciendum est plane sanctum Hieronymum ideo diversorum translationes legisse atque correxisse, eo quod auctoritati Hebraicae nequaquam eas perspiceret consonare. Unde factum est ut omnes libros Veteris Testamenti diligenti cura in Latinum sermonem de Hebraeo fonte transfunderet, et ad viginti duarum litterarum modum, qui apud Hebraeos manet, competenter adduceret; per quas omnis sapientia discitur, et memoria dictorum in aevum scripta servatur. Huic etiam adjecti sunt Novi Testamenti libri viginti septem, qui colliguntur simul quadraginta novem. Cui numero adde omnipotentem et indivisibilem Trinitatem, per quam haec facta, et propter quam ista praedicta sunt, et quinquagenarius numerus indubitanter efficitur; qui ad instar jubilaei anni magna pietate beneficii debita relaxat, et pure poenitentium peccata dissolvit. Hunc autem pandecten propter copiam lectionis minutiore manu in quaternionibus quinquaginta tribus aestimavimus conscribendum, ut quod lectio copiosa tetendit, scripturae densitas adunata contraheret. Meminisse autem debemus memoratum Hieronymum omnem translationem suam in auctoritate divina (sicut ipse testatur) propter simplicitatem fratrum colis et commatibus ordinasse; ut qui distinctiones saecularium litterarum comprehendere minime potuerunt, hoc remedio suffulti, inculpabiliter pronuntiarent sacratissimas lectiones.
Caput XIII. Divisio Scripturae divinae secundum Augustinum. Scriptura divina secundum beatum Augustinum in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est in Vetus et Novum. In historia sunt libri viginti duo, id est, Moysi libri quinque, Jesu Nave liber unus, Judicum liber unus, Ruth liber unus, Regum libri quatuor, Paralipomenon libri duo, Job liber unus, Tobiae liber unus, Esther liber unus, Judith liber unus, Esdrae libri duo, Machabaeorum libri duo. In Prophetis libri viginti duo, David Psalmorum [ms. Aud., Psalterium] liber unus, Salomonis libri quatuor, Jesu filii Sirach liber unus. Prophetae majores quatuor, id est, Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, Daniel; et minores duodecim, id est, Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Michaeas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Zacharias, Aggaeus, Malachias. In Epistolis apostolorum viginti una, id est, Pauli apostoli ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duae, ad Galatas una, ad Ephesios una, ad Philippenses una, ad Thessalonicenses duae, ad Colossenses una, ad Timotheum duae, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem una, ad Hebraeos una; Petri duae, Joannis tres, Judae una, Jacobi una. In Evangeliis quatuor, id est, secundum Matthaeum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Joannem. In Actibus apostolorum liber unus. In Apocalypsi liber unus. Beatus igitur Augustinus secundum praefatos novem codices, quos sancta meditatur Ecclesia, secundo libro (Cap. 8) de Doctrina Christiana, Scripturas divinas septuaginta unius librorum calculo comprehendit: quibus cum sanctae Trinitatis addideris unitatem, fit totius libri competens et gloriosa perfectio.
Caput XIV. Divisio Scripturae divinae secundum antiquam translationem et secundum Septuaginta. Scriptura sancta secundum antiquam translationem in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum. In Genesim, Exodum, Leviticum, Numerorum, Deuteronomium, Jesu Nave, Judicum, Ruth, Regum libros quatuor, Paralipomenon libros duos, Psalterii librum unum, Salomonis libros quinque, id est, Proverbia, Sapientiam, Ecclesiasticum, Ecclesiasten, Canticum canticorum, Prophetas, id est, Isaiam, Jeremiam, Ezechielem, Danielem, Osee, Amos, Michaeam, Joel, Abdiam, Jonam, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophoniam, Aggaeum, Zachariam, Malachiam qui et Angelus, Job, Tobiam, Esther, Judith, Esdrae duos, Machabaeorum duos. Post haec sequuntur Evangelistae quatuor, id est, Matthaeus, Marcus, Lucas, Joannes, Actus apostolorum, Epistolae Petri ad gentes, Judae, Jacobi ad duodecim tribus, Joannis ad Parthos, Epistolae Pauli ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duae, ad Galatas una, ad Philippenses una, ad Colossenses una, ad Hebraeos una, ad Thessalonicenses duae, ad Timotheum duae, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem una, Apocalypsis Joannis (M. Aurelii Cassiodori, De Institutione Divinarum Litterarum, Caput XII, XIII, XIV, PL 70:1122D-1125C).

109 Which books are accepted in the canon a brief summary will show. These are the ones which you wish to be reminded of by the voice you longed for: the five books of Moses, that is, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; and Joshua, one book of Judges, four books of Kings, also Ruth and sixteen books of Prophets, five books of Solomon, the Psalter; likewise of the histories, one book of Job, one book of Tobias, one of Esther, one of Judith, two of Maccabees, two of Ezra, two books of Chronicles (Epistola VI: Exsuperio: episcopo Tolosano salutem, Cap. VII,13. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Qui vero libri recipiantur in canone, brevis annexus ostendit. Haec sunt quae desiderata moneri voce voluisti: Moysi libri quinque, id est, Genesis, Exodi, Levitici, Numeri, Deuteronomii, et Jesu Nave, Judicum unus, Regnorum libri quatuor, simul et Ruth, Prophetarum libri sexdecim, Salomonis libri quinque, Psalterium. Item historiarum, Job liber unus, Tobi liber unus, Esther unus, Judith unus, Machabaeorum duo, Esdrae duo, Paralipomenon libri duo (Epistola VI: Exsuperio: episcopo Tolosano salutem, Cap. VII,13. PL 20:501-502).

110 The order of the books of the Old Testament which the holy and catholic Roman Church accepts and honors, summarized by blessed pope Gelasius I with seventy bishops: one book of Genesis, one of Exodus, one of Leviticus, one of Numbers, one of Deuteronomy; one book of Joshua, one of Judges, one of Ruth, four of Kings, two of Chronicles, one books of 150 Psalms, three of Solomon: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, likewise one book of Wisdom, one of Ecclesiasticus. The order of the prophets: one book of Isaiah, one of Jeremiah, Cinoth, that is his lamentations, one of Ezechiel, one of Daniel, one of Osee, one of Amos, one of Micah, one of Joel, one of Abdias, one of Jonah, one of Nahum, one of Habakuk, one of Sophonias, one of Haggah, one of Zachariah, one of Malachi. Likewise the order of the histories: one book of Job, one book of Tobias omitted by others, one of Ezra, one of Esther, one of Judith, one of Maccabees (Decretum Gelasianum: De Libris Recipiendis et Non Recipiendis. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Ordo librorum Veteris Testamenti quem sancta et catholica Romana suscipit et veneratur Ecclesia, digestus a beato Gelasio papa I cum septuaginta episcopis: Genesis liber unus. Exodi liber unus. Levitici liber unus. Numeri liber unus. Deuteronomii liber unus. Jesu nave [Josue] liber unus. Judicum liber unus. Ruth liber unus. Regnorum [Regum] libri quatuor. Paralipomenon libri duo. Psalmorum 150 liber unus. Salomonis libri tres: Proverbia, Ecclesiastes, et Cantica canticorum. Item Sapientiae liber unus. Ecclesiasticus liber unus. Item ordo prophetarum: Isaiae liber unus. Jeremiae liber unus. Cinoth, id est, de lamentationibus suis. Ezechielis liber unus. Danielis liber unus. Oseae liber unus. Amos liber unus. Michaeae liber unus. Joel liber unus. Abdiae liber unus. Jonae liber unus. Nahum liber unus. Habacuc liber unus. Sophoniae liber unus. Aggaei liber unus. Zachariae liber unus. Malachiae liber unus. Item ordo historiarum: Job liber unus, ab aliis omissus. Tobiae liber unus. Esdrae liber unus. Esther [Hester] liber unus. Judith liber unus. Machabaeorum liber unus (Decretum Gelasianum: De Libris Recipiendis et Non Recipiendis. PL 59:157).

111 Ordo de Veteri Testamento, quem sancta et catholica Romana suscipit, et honorat Ecclesia, iste est: Geneseos liber I. Exodi liber I. Levitici liber I. Numeri liber I. Deuteronomii liber I. Jesu Nave liber I. Judicum liber I. Ruth liber I. Regum libri IV. Paralipomenon libri II. Psalmorum CL liber I. Salomonis libri III. Proverbia, Ecclesiastes et Cantica Canticorum. Item Sapientiae liber I. Ecclesiastici liber I. Item ordo prophetarum. Isaiae liber I. Jeremiae liber I, cum Cinoth ac Lamentationibus suis. Ezechielis liber I. Danielis liber I. Osee liber I. Amos liber I. Michaeae liber I. Joel liber I. Abdiae liber I. Jonae liber I. Naum liber I. Habacuc liber I. Sophoniae liber I. Aggaei liber I. Zachariae liber I. Malachiae liber I. Item ordo historiarum. Job liber I. Tobiae liber I. Esdrae libri II. Esther liber I. Judith liber I. Machabaeorum libri II (Decretale, In Urbe Roma ab Hormisda Papa. De Scripturis divinis quid universaliter catholica recipiat Ecclesia, vel post haec quid vitare debeat. PL 62:540).

112 1. Vetus Testamentum ideo dicitur, quia veniente Novo cessavit, de quo Apostolus meminit, dicens: Vetera transierunt et ecce facta sunt omnia nova.
2. Testamentum autem Novum ideo nuncupatur, quia innovat. Non enim illud discunt nisi homines renovati ex vetustate per gratiam, et pertinentes jam ad Testamentum Novum, quod est regnum coelorum.
3. Hebraei autem Veteris Testamenti, Esdra auctore, juxta numerum litterarum suarum, viginti duos libros accipiunt, dividentes eos in tres ordines, Legis scilicet, et Prophetarum, et Hagiographorum.
4. Primus ordo Legis, in quinque libris accipitur, quorum primus est Beresith, quod est Genesis; secundus Veelle Semoth, quod est Exodus; tertius Vaicra, quod est Leviticus; quartus Vajedabber, quod est Numeri; quintus Elleaddebarim, quod est Deuteronomium.
5. Hi sunt quinque lib. Moysi, quos Hebraei thora, Latini legem appellant. Proprie autem Lex appellatur, quae per Moysen data est.
6. Secundus ordo est Prophetarum, in quo continentur libri octo, quorum primus Josue Ben-Nun, qui Latine Jesu Nave dicitur; secundus Sophtin, quod est Judicum; tertius Samuel, qui est Regum primus; quartus Melachim, qui est Regum secundus; quintus Isaias, sextus Jeremias; septimus Ezechiel; octavus Thereazar, qui dicitur Duodecim prophetarum; qui libri, quia sibi pro brevitate adjuncti sunt, pro uno accipiuntur.
7. Tertius est ordo Hagiographorum, id est, sancta scribentium, in quo sunt libri novem, quorum primus Job; secundus Psalterium; tertius Misse, quod est Proverbia Salomonis; quartus Coheleth, quod est Ecclesiastes; quintus Sir hassirim, quod est Cantica canticorum; sextus Daniel; septimus Dibrehajamim, quod est Verba dierum, hoc est Paralipomenon; octavus Esdras; nonus Esther, qui simul omnes V, VIII et IX, fiunt XXII, sicut superius comprehensi sunt.
8. Quidam autem Ruth et Cinoth, quod Latine dicitur Lamentatio Jeremiae, hagiographis adjiciunt, et XXIV volumina Testamenti Veteris faciunt, juxta viginti quatuor seniores, qui ante conspectum Domini assistunt.
9. Quartus est apud nos ordo Veteris Testamenti eorum librorum qui in canone Hebraico non sunt. Quorum primus Sapientiae liber est; secundus Ecclesiasticus; tertius Thobias; quartus Judith; quintus et sextus Machabaeorum, quos licet Judaei inter apocrypha separent, Ecclesia tamen Christi inter divinos libros, et honorat et praedicat (Sancti Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum Libri XX, Liber Sextus, De Libris Et Officiis Ecclesiasticus, Caput Primum, De Veteri et Novo Testamento. PL 82:229. Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward).

113 Tenebit igitur hunc modum in Scripturis canonicis, ut eas quae ab omnibus accipiuntur Ecclesiis catholicis praeponat eis quas quidam non accipiunt, in eis vero quae non accipiuntur ab omnibus, praeponat eas quas plures gravioresque accipiunt, eis quas paucioris minorisque auctoritatis Ecclesiae tenent. Si autem alias invenerit a pluribus, alias a gravioribus haberi, quanquam hoc invenire non possit, aequalis tamen auctoritatis eas habendas puto. Totus autem canon Scripturarum, in quo istam considerationem versandam dicimus his libris continetur (ut breviter dicam) Veteris Testamenti XLV, Novi autem XXVII, qui sunt LXXII. Quorum omnium nomina et seriem, et auctoritatem, quia in superiori libro quantum potui descripsi, non necesse credimus iterare. Notandum tamen quod Hebraei Vetus Testamentum, Esdra auctore juxta numerum litterarum suarum in XXII libros accipiunt, dividentes eos in tres ordines, legis scilicet, prophetarum et hagiographorum. Primus ordo legis in quinque libris accipitur, quorum primus est Bresith, qui est Genesis. Secundus Ellesmot, qui est Exodus. Tertius Vaiicra, qui est Leviticus. Quartus Vaiedabbet, qui est Numerus. Quintus Ellehadabarim, quod est Deuteronomium. Hi sunt quinque libri Moysi, quos Hebraei Thorath, Latini legem appellant, proprie autem lex appellatur, quae per Moysen data est. Secundus ordo prophetarum, in quo continentur libri octo, quorum primus Josue bennun, qui Latine Jesu Nave dicitur. Secundus Sophthim, qui est Judicum. Tertius Samuel, qui est Regum primus. Quartus Malachim, qui est Regum secundus. Quintus Isaias. Sextus Jeremias. Septimus Ezechiel. Octavus Thereasar, qui dicitur duodecim prophetarum, qui libri quia sibi pro parvitate adjuncti sunt, pro uno accipiuntur. Tertius ordo Hagiographorum, id est, sancta scribentium, in quo sunt libri novem, quorum primus Job; secundus Psalterium, qui in quinque incisionibus dividitur; tertius Massoth, quod est Proverbia Salomonis; quartus Coheleth, qui est Ecclesiastes; quintus Sirhasirim, quod est Canticum canticorum; sextus Daniel; septimus Dibrehaiomim, quod est Verba dierum, id est, Paralipomenon; octavus Esdras; nonus est Esther. Qui simul omnes V, et VIII, et IX, fiunt XXII, sicut superius sunt comprehensi. Quidam autem Ruth, et Cinoth, quod Latine dicitur lamentatio Jeremiae, hagiographis adjiciunt, et viginti quatuor volumina Veteris Testamenti faciunt, juxta XXIV seniores, qui ante conspectum Dei assistunt. Isti sunt libri qui apud Hebraeos canonicam auctoritatem habent. Quartus est apud nos ordo Veteris Testamenti, eorum librorum qui in canone Hebraico non sunt, quorum primus Sapientiae liber est, secundus Ecclesiasticus, tertius Tobiae, quartus Judith, quintus et sextus Machabaeorum, quos licet Judaei inter apocrypha separent, Ecclesia tamen Christi inter divinos libros honorat et praedicat (De Clericorum Institutione, Book II, Cap. 6-7. PL 107:383).

114 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). The Encyclopedia can also be found on line at New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

115 The Old Testament is so called because with the coming of the New, it ceased, which the Apostle also recalls, saying, 'Certain things passed away, and behold! All things were made new.' So the New Testament was so named because it makes new. For those who made this statement were none other than men called out of the Old [dispensation] by grace, and belonging now to the New Testament, which is the Kingdom of Heaven. The Hebrews accept the Old Testament as authorized by God in twenty-two books, according to the number of their letters, dividing them into three orders, that is, the Law, the Prophets and the Holy Writings…Five and eight added to nine make twenty-two, as is understood from the above. Some also add Ruth and Cinoth, which is called in Latin the Lamentations of Jeremiah, to the Hagiographies. These make twenty-four volumes of the Old Testament, just like the twenty-four elders who sit before the Face of God. The fourth [order?] is of those books accepted by us in the order of the Old Testament which are not in the Canon of the Hebrews. The first of them is the Book of Wisdom, the second Ecclesiasticus, the third Tobias, the fourth Judith, the fifth and sixth the Books of the Maccabees. The Church of Christ proclaims these and honors them as divine books, even though the Jews separate them as Apocrypha…The Book of Wisdom is found nowhere among the Hebrews, as a result of which it is far more redolent of Greek style than of Hebrew eloquence. The Jews affirm this to be Babylonian. Therefore they call it Wisdom, for in it the coming of Christ, who is the Wisdom of the Father, and His Passion, is evidently expressed. Now the Book of Ecclesiasticus was definitely composed by Jesus, son of Sirach and grandson of the great priest (high priest) Jesu, which Zacharias also mentions. This book is mainly known among the Latins by this title on account of its similarity to the sayings of Solomon. Indeed the statement of Ecclesiasticus is to be studied with great care, for it deals with the discipline of the whole Church and of religious discourse. This book is found among the Hebrews, but as Apocrypha. Judith, however, Tobias and the books of the Maccabees which were written by their author are the least established. They take their names from those whose deeds they describe…These are the writers of the holy books, who speaking by the Holy Spirit, have written in collaboration with him the rule to be believed and the precepts to be lived by for our erudition. Beyond these, other books are called Apocrypha, for 'apocrypha' are sayings, that is, secret sayings, which are doubtful. For the origin of them is hidden, nor does it appear to the Fathers, from whom the authority of the truth of Scriptures comes down to us in most clear and certain succession. Although some truth is found in these apocrypha, a great deal is false, nothing in them has canonical authority, and they are rightly judged by the wise not to be among those things to be believed, for a great deal is put out by heretics in the name of the Prophets, and more recently is the name of the Apostles. All that is called apocrypha has been removed following the diligent examination of canonical authority (Tractatus Quales sunt. De Divisone Et Scriptoribus Sacrorum Librorum. PL 207:1051B-1056. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Vetus Testamentum ideo dicitur quod, veniente Novo, cessavit; de quo et Apostolus meminit dicens: Caetera transierunt, et ecce nova facta sunt. Testamentum autem Novum ideo nuncupavit quia innovat. Non enim illud dicunt nisi homines revocati ex vetustate per gratiam, et pertinentes jam ad Testamentum Novum, quod est regnum coelorum. Hebraei autem Vetus Testamentum a Deo auctore juxta litterarum suarum numerum in XXII libros accipiunt, dividentes eos in tres ordines: legis scilicet, prophetarum et hagiographorum…Qui simul omnes quinque et octo novem fiunt viginti et duo, sicut superius comprehensi sunt. Quidam autem Ruth et Cinoth, quod Latine dicitur tamentationes Jeremiae, hagiographis adjiciunt. Viginti quatuor volumina Testamenti Veteris faciunt juxta viginti quatuor seniores qui ante conspectum Dei assistunt. Quartus est apud nos ordo Veteris Testamenti eorum librorum qui in canone Hebraeorum non sunt. Quorum primus Sapientiae liber est, secundus Ecclesiasticus, tertius Tobias, quartus Judith, quintus et sextus Machabaeorum; quos, licet Judaei inter apocrypha separent, Ecclesia tamen Christi inter divinos libros et honorat et praedicat…Liber Sapientiae apud Hebraeos nusquam est: unde et ipse stylus Graecam magis quam Hebraeam eloquentiam redolet. Hunc Judaei Babylonis esse affirmant; qui proinde Sapientiae nominant, quia in eo Christi adventus, qui est sapientia Patris, et passio ejus evidenter exprimitur. Librum autem Ecclesiasticum certissime Jesus filius Sirach, nepos Jesu sacerdotis magni, composuit; de quo meminit et Zacharias, qui liber apud Latinos propter eloquii similitudinem Salomonis titulo praenotatur. Dictus autem Ecclesiasticus, eo quod de totius Ecclesiae disciplina religiosae conversationis magna cura et ratione sit editus. Hic apud Hebraeos reperitur, sed nunc apocryphus habetur. Judith vero, et Tobiae, sive Machabaeorum libri, quibus auctoribus scripti sunt minime constat. Habent autem vocabula ex eorum nominibus, quorum gesta scribunt…
Hi sunt scriptores sacrorum librorum qui per Spiritum sanctum loquentes, ad eruditionem nostram praecepta vivendi et credendi regulam conscripserunt. Praeter haec alia volumina apocrypha nuncupantur. Apocrypha autem dicta, id est secreta, quia in dubium veniunt. Est enim eorum occulta origo; nec patet Patribus, e quibus usque ad nos auctoritas veritatis Scripturarum certissima et notissima successione pervenit. In his apocryphis etsi invenitur aliqua veritas, tamen propter multa falsa nulla est in eis canonica auctoritas, quae recte a prudentibus judicantur non esse eorum credenda quibus ascribuntur. Nam multa et sub nominibus prophetarum, et recentiora sub nominibus apostolorum ab haereticis proferuntur; quae omnia sub nomine apocryphorum auctoritate canonica diligenti examinatione remota sunt (Tractatus Quales sunt. De Divisone Et Scriptoribus Sacrorum Librorum. PL 207:1051B-1056).

116 Ponit tamen hieronymus 'quartum librorum ordinem, scilicet, apocryphos': et dicuntur apocryphi ab apo, quod est valde et cyphon, quod est obscurum, quia de eorum sententiis vel auctoribus dubitatur. ecclesia vero catholica quosdam libros recepit in numero sanctarum scripturarum, de quorum sententiis non dubitatur, sed de auctoribus (Thomas Aquinas, Principium Biblicum, Opera Omnia (Index Thomisticus), vol. 3, p. 647. Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward).

117 It (the Roman Church) professes that one and the same God as the author of the old and the new Testament-that is, the law and the prophets, and the gospel-since the saints of both testaments spoke under the inspiration of the same Spirit. It accepts and venerates their books, whose titles are as follows: Five books of Moses, namely Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two of Paralipornen(n, Esdras, Nehemiah, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Job, Psalms of David, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel; the twelve minor prophets, namely Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi; two books of the Maccabees; the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John; fourteen letters of Paul, to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, two to the Thessalonians, to the Colossians, two to Timothy, to Titus, to Philemon, to the Hebrews; two letters of Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude; Acts of the Apostles; Apocalypse of John (Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, Norman Tanner, Ed. (Georgetown University: Sheed & Ward, 1990), Volume One, Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence-Rome, p. 573).

118 New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: McGraw Hill, 1967), Volume V, Florence, p. 973.

119 New Catholic Encyclopedia, Glossa Ordinaria; Glosses, Biblical, pp. 515-516.

120 Karlfried Froehlich and Margaret Gibson, Biblia Latina Cum Glossa Ordinaria, Introduction to the Facsimile Reprint of the Editio Princeps Adolph Rusch of Strassborg 1480/81 (Brepols-Turnhout, 1992) Karlfried Froehlich, The Printed Gloss, p. XXVI.

121 Alister McGrath, The Intellectual Origins of the Reformation (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), p. 126.

122 Karlfried Froehlich and Margaret Gibson, Biblia Latina Cum Glossa Ordinaria, Introduction to the Facsimile Reprint of the Editio Princeps Adolph Rusch of Strassborg 1480/81 (Brepols-Turnhout, 1992), The Glossed Bible, pp. VIII.

123 Ibid., pp. VIII-IX.

124 Quoniam plerique eo quod non multam operam dant sacrae Scripturae, existimant omnes libros qui in Bibliis continentur, pari veneratione esse reverendos atque adorandos, nescientes distinguere inter libros canonicos, et non canonicos, quos Hebraei a canone separant, et Graeci inter apocrypha computant; unde saepe coram doctis ridiculi videntur, et perturbantur, scandalizanturque cum audiunt aliquem non pari cum caeteris omnibus veneratione prosequi aliquid quod in Bibliis legatur: idcirco hic distinximus, et distincte numeravimus primo libros canonicos, et postea non canonicos, inter quos tantum distat quantum inter certum et dubium. Nam canonici sunt confecti Spiritus sancto dictante non canonici autem sive apocryphi, nescitur quo tempore quibusve auctoribus autoribus sint editi; quia tamen valde boni et utiles sunt, nihilque in eis quod canonicis obviet, invenitur, ideo Ecclesia eos legit, et permittit, ut ad devotionem, et ad morum informationem a fidelibus legantur. Eorum tamen auctoritas ad probandum ea quae veniunt in dubium, aut in contentionem, et ad confirmandam ecclesiasticorum dogmatum auctoritatem, non reputatur idonea, ut ait beatus Hieronymus in prologis super Judith et super libris Salomonis. At libri canonici tantae sunt auctoritatis, ut quidquid ibi continetur, verum teneat firmiter et indiscusse: et per consequens illud quod ex hoc concluditur manifeste; nam sicut in philosophia veritas cognoscitur per reductionem ad prima principia per se nota: ita et in Scripturis a sanctis doctoribus traditis veritas cognoscitur, quantum ad ea quae sunt fide tenenda, per reductionem ad Scripturas canonicas, quae sunt habita divina revelatione cui nullo modo potest falsum subesse. Unde de his dicit Augustinus ad Hieronymum: Ego solis eis scriptoribus qui canonici appellantur, didici hunc timorem honoremque deferre, ut nullum eorum scribendo errasse firmissime teneam; ac si aliquid in eis offendero quod videatur contrarium veritati, nihil aliud existimem quam mendosum esse codicem, vel non esse assecutum interpretem quod dictum est, vel me minime intellexisse, non ambigam. Alios autem ita lego, ut quantalibet sanctitate doctrinave polleant, non ideo verum putem quia ipsi ita senserunt, sed quia mihi per illos auctores canonicos vel probabiles rationes, quod a vero non abhorreat, persuadere potuerunt (Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali (Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498), British Museum IB.37895, Vol. 1, On the canonical and non-canonical books of the Bible. Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward).

125 There are, then, twenty-two canonical books of the old testament, corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, as Eusebius reports, in book six of Ecclesiastical History, that Origen writes on the first Psalm; and Jerome says the same thing more fully and distinctly in his Helmeted Prologue to the books of Kings: All the books are divided into three parts by the Jews: into the law, which contains the five books of Moses; into the eight prophets; and into the nine hagiographa. This will be more clearly seen shortly. Some, however, separate the book of Ruth from the book of Judges, and the Lamentations of Jeremiah from Jeremiah, and count them among the hagiographa in order to make twenty-four books, corresponding to the twenty-four elders whom the Apocalypse presents as adoring the lamb. These are the books that are in the canon, as blessed Jerome writes at greater length in the Helmeted Prologue to the books of Kings.
In the first place are the five books of Moses, which are called the law, first of which is Genesis, second Exodus, third Leviticus, fourth Numbers, fifth Deuteronomy. Secondly follow the eight prophetic books, first of which is Joshua, second the book of Judges together with Ruth, third Samuel, i.e. first and second Kings, fourth Malachim, i.e. third and fourth Kings, fifth Isaiah, sixth Jeremiah with Lamentations, seventh Ezekiel, eighth the book of twelve prophets, first of which is Hosea, second Joel, third Amos, fourth Obadiah, fifth Jonah, sixth Micah, seventh Nahum, eighth Habakkuk, ninth Zephaniah, tenth Haggai, eleventh Zechariah, twelfth Malachi. Thirdly follow the nine hagiographa, first of which is Job, second Psalms, third Solomon's Proverbs, fourth his Ecclesiastes, fifth his Song of Songs, sixth Daniel, seventh Paralipomenon, which is one book, not two, among the Jews, eighth Ezra with Nehemiah (for it is all one book), ninth Esther. And whatever is outside of these (I speak of the Old Testament), as Jerome says, should be placed in the apocrypha (Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali. Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498. British Museum IB.37895, vol. 1. Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward. See also Walafrid Strabo, Glossa ordinaria, De Canonicis et Non Canonicis Libris. PL 113:19-24).
Latin Reference: Sunt igitur libri canonici Veteris Testamenti viginti duo, ad numerum viginti duarum litterarum Hebraeorum, ut scribere Origenem super primum psalmum refert Eusebius libro sexto Ecclesiasticae Historiae, et copiosius distinctiusque dicit beatus Hieronymus in prologo galeato super librum Regum, quod omnes in tres partes ab Hebraeis dividuntur: In Legem, id est quinque libros Moysi; in prophetas octo, et hagiographa novem; ut statim clarius patebit, quamvis nonnulli librum Ruth separent a libro Judicum, et Lamentationes Jeremiae a Jeremia, et inter Hagiographa computent, ut sint viginti quatuor libri. Hanc divisionem probant Hebraei qui Biblia sua ob id appellant , id est, viginti quatuor.] ad numerum viginti quatuor seniorum quos Apocalypsis inducit adorantes Agnum.
Isti sunt libri qui sunt in canone, ut latius scribit beatus Hieronymus in prologo galeato qui est super libros Regum. Et primo quinque libri Moysi, qui appellantur lex, quorum primus est Genesis, secundus Exodus, tertius Leviticus, quartus Numeri, quintus Deuteronomium. Secundo sequuntur octo libri prophetales, quorum primus est Josue, secundus liber Judicum cum Ruth, tertius Samuel, id est, primus et secundus Regum, quartus Malachim, id est, tertius et quartus Regum; quintus Isaias, sextus Jeremias cum Lamentationibus, septimus Ezechiel, octavus liber duodecim prophetarum: quorum primus est Osee, secundus Joel, tertius Amos, quartus Abdias, quintus Jonas, sextus Michaeas, septimus Nahum, octavus Habacuc, nonus Sophonias, decimus Aggaeus, undecimus Zacharias, duodecimus Malachias. Tertio sequuntur Hagiographa novem, quorum primus est Job, secundus Psalterium, tertius Salomonis Proverbia, quartus ejusdem Ecclesiastes, quintus ejusdem Canticorum, sextus Daniel, septimus Paralipomenon, qui apud Hebraeos est unus liber, non duo; octavus Esdras cum Nehemia (est enim totus unus liber), nonus Esther. Quidquid autem extra hos est (de Veteri Testamento loquor) ut dicit Hieronymus, inter apocrypha est ponendum (Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali. Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498. British Museum IB.37895, vol. 1. See also Walafrid Strabo, Glossa ordinaria, De Canonicis et Non Canonicis Libris. PL 113:19-24).

126 These are the books that are not in the canon, which the church includes as good and useful books, but not canonical. Among them are some of more, some of less authority. For Tobit, Judith, and the books of Maccabees, also the book of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, are strongly approved by all. Thus Augustine, in book two of De Doctrina Christiana, counts the first three among canonical books; concerning Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, he says they deserved to be received as authoritative and should be numbered among the prophetic books; concerning the books of Maccabees, in book 18 of the City of God, speaking of the books of Ezra, he says that, although the Jews do not consider them canonical, the church considers them canonical because of the passions of certain martyrs and powerful miracles. Of less authority are Baruch and Third and Fourth Ezra. For Augustine makes no mention of them in the place cited above, while he included (as I have said) other apocryphal works among the canonical. Rufinus as well, in his exposition of the creed, and Isidore, in book 6 of the Etymologies, where they repeat this division of Jerome, mentioned nothing of these other books.
And that we might enumerate the apocryphal books in the order in which they appear in this Bible, even though they have been produced in a different order, first come the third and fourth books of Ezra. They are called Third and Fourth Ezra because, before Jerome, Greeks and Latins used to divide the book of Ezra into two books, calling the words of Nehemiah the second book of Ezra. These Third and Fourth Ezra are, as I have said, of less authority among all non-canonical books. Hence Jerome, in his prologue to the books of Ezra, calls them dreams. They are found in very few Bible manuscripts; and in many printed Bibles only Third Ezra is found. Second is Tobit, a very devout and useful book. Third is Judith, which Jerome says in his prologue had been counted by the Nicene Council in the number of holy scriptures. Fourth is the book of Wisdom, which almost all hold that Philo of Alexandria, a most learned Jew, wrote. Fifth is the book of Jesus son of Sirach, which is called Ecclesiasticus. Sixth is Baruch, as Jerome says in his prologue to Jeremiah. Seventh is the book of Maccabees, divided into first and second books…Further, it should be known that in the book of Esther, only those words are in the canon up to that place where we have inserted: the end of the book of Esther, as far as it is in Hebrew. What follows afterward is not in the canon. Likewise in Daniel, only those words are in the canon up to that place where we have inserted: The prophet Daniel ends. What follows afterward is not in the canon (Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali (Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498), British Museum IB.37895, Vol. 1. Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward. See also Walafrid Strabo, Glossa ordinaria, De Canonicis et Non Canonicis Libris. PL 113:19-24).
Latin Reference: Isti sunt libri qui non sunt in canone, quos tamen Ecclesia ut bonos et utiles libros admittit, non ut canonicos, inter quos sunt aliqui majoris auctoritatis, aliqui minoris. Nam Tobias, Judith, et Machabaeorum libri, Sapientiae quoque liber atque Ecclesiasticus, valde ab omnibus probantur; ita quod Augustinus libro de doctrina Christiana tres superiores numerat inter canonicos, et de Sapientia atque Ecclesiastico dicit, meruisse illos recipi in auctoritatem, et inter propheticos debere numerari. Et de libris Machabaeorum libro decimo octavo de Civitate Dei loquens, et de Esdrae libris dicit quod quamvis Hebraei non habeant eos pro canonicis, tamen Ecclesia habet illos pro canonicis propter quorumdam martyrum passiones vehementes atque mirabiles. Minoris autem auctoritatis sunt Baruch, et tertius et quartus Esdrae: nam Augustinus in loco supradicto nullam de his facit mentionem, cum tamen, ut dixi, alios apocryphos canonicis annumerat. Rufinus quoque in expositione Symboli, et Isidorus in libro sexto Etymologiarum, ubi hanc Hieronymi divisionem referunt, horum nihil meminerunt. Et ut numeres eos eo ordine quo sunt in Bibliis, quamvis alio ordine fuerint editi, primo sunt tertius et quartus libri Esdrae, qui dicuntur tertius et quartus; quia ante Hieronymum Graeci et Latini librum Esdrae canonicum secabant in duos libros, sermones Nehemiae, secundum librum appellantes. Isti autem tertius et quartus inter omnes, non canonicos minoris, ut dixi, sunt auctoritatis. Unde Hieronymus in prologo Esdrae eos appellat somnia, et in paucissimis Bibliis manuscriptis inveniuntur, et in multis impressis invenitur solum tertius. Secundus est Tobias, liber valde devotus et utilis. Tertius est Judith, quem dicit Hieronymus in prologo fuisse a Nicaena synodo computatum in numero sanctarum Scripturarum. Quartus liber Sapientiae, quem scripsisse Philonem Alexandrinum Judaeum doctissimum, fere omnes tenent. Quintus est liber Jesu filii Sirach, qui Ecclesiasticus dicitur: Sextus est Baruch, ut dicit Hieronymus in prologo Jeremiae. Septimus est Machabaeorum liber, in primum et secundum divisus.
Neque aliquem moveat quod in Judith et Tobiae prologis dicitur quod apud Hebraeos inter hagiographa leguntur, quia manifestus error est, et apocrypha, non hagiographa, est legendum: qui error in omnibus quos viderim codicibus invenitur: et inolevit, ut puto, ex pietate et devotione scribentium, qui devotissimas historias horrebant annumerare inter apocrypha. Nam quod hic error multis retro annis codices occupaverit, ostendit magister in historia Judith, ubi dicit: Hic liber apud Chaldaeos inter historias computatur, et apud Hebraeos inter apocrypha, quod dicit Hieronymus in prologo, qui sic incipit: Viginti et duas litteras. Si ergo alicubi in prologo super Judith legitur inter hagiographa, vitium scriptoris est, quod in ipso titulo deprehendi potest. Ex quo miror quod dictus magister non adverterit eumdem esse errorem in prologo Tobiae, ubi ipse dicit: Hanc historiam Hebraei ponunt inter apocrypha. Hieronymus tamen in prologo suo dicit inter hagiographa: Glossa quoque super dicto prologo Tobiae dicit potius et verius dixisset inter apocrypha: vel large accipit hagiographa, quasi sanctorum scripta, et ita non est de numero illorum novem quae proprie dicuntur hagiographa, quae sunt de catalogo, id est, de numero viginti duorum librorum Biblicorum. Nam cum Hieronymus in prologo Galeato, post enumerationem canonicorum librorum, dicat: Hic prologus Scripturarum quasi galeatum principium, omnibus libris quos de Hebraeo vertimus in Latinum convenire potest, ut scire valeamus quidquid extra hos est, inter apocrypha esse ponendum. Igitur Sapientia, quae vulgo Salomonis inscribitur, et Jesu filii Sirach liber, et Judith, et Tobias, et Pastor, non sunt in canone:" quomodo credendum est, illum postea in illis prologis scripsisse eos inter hagiographa, et sibi ipsi contradicere? Si quis praeterea liberatiori examine Hieronymi verba in dictis prologis perpenderit, animadvertet illum scripsisse apocrypha, non hagiographa. Dicit enim in prologo Tobiae: "Exigitis ut librum Chaldaeo sermone conscriptum ad Latinum stylum traham, librum utique Tobiae, quem Hebraei de catalogo divinarum Scripturarum secantes, his quae apocrypha memorant, manciparunt." In Judith autem ait: Apud Hebraeos liber Judith inter apocrypha legitur, cujus auctoritas ad roboranda illa quae in contentionem veniunt, minus idonea judicatur. Cum itaque dicat Hebraeos secare Tobiam de catalogo divinarum Scripturarum, et Judith auctoritatem minus idoneam judicari, si inter Hagiographa numeraret, et non inter apocrypha, contraria videretur in eodem loco scripsisse. Sed, ut dixi, scriptores hoc nomen apocrypha horrentes, devotione ac pietate quadam rejecto apocrypha, hagiographa scripserunt. Rufinus vero ubi supra, enumeratis libris canonicis, in quibus cum Hieronymo concordat, infert: Haec sunt quae patres intra canonem concluserunt, ex quibus fidei nostrae assertiones constare voluerunt. Sciendum tamen est quod et alii libri sunt qui non canonici, sed ecclesiastici a majoribus appellati sunt, ut Sapientia quae dicitur Salomonis, et alia Sapientia quae dicitur filii Sirach. Et infra: ejusdem ordinis est libellus Tobiae, et Judith, et Machabaeorum libri: quae omnia legi quidem in ecclesiis voluerunt, non tamen proferri ad auctoritatem ex his confirmandam. Caeteras vero scripturas apocryphas nominaverunt, quas in ecclesiis legi noluerunt. Praeterea est sciendum quod in libro Esther illa duntaxat sunt in canone quae scribuntur usque ad eum locum ubi posuimus: Finit liber Esther, prout est in Hebraeo, quae postea sequuntur non sunt in canone. Similiter in Daniele, illa tantum sunt in canone quae sunt usque ad eum locum ubi posuimus: Finit Daniel propheta: quae post ea sequuntur non sunt in canone.
Quamvis autem David, id est, Psalterium apud Hebraeos non ponatur inter prophetas, sed inter hagiographa, tamen ere omnes Latini eum non solum prophetam sed summum prophetarum, vel secundum vocant. Danielem quoque inter prophetas numerant.
Aliter quoque aliqui Latini diviserunt Vetus et Novum Testamentum, scilicet in libros legales, historiales, sapientiales et prophetales. Legales appellant quinque libros Moysi in Veteri Testamento: quibus in Novo faciunt respondere quatuor Evangelia. Historiales, Josue, Judicum, libros Regum, Paralipomenon, Esdra, Esther et Job: quibus in Novo correspondent Acta apostolorum. Sapientiales tres libros Salomonis, scilicet: Proverbia, Ecclesiasten, et Canticum canticorum: quibus in Novo correspondent Epistolae Pauli, et quae canonicae dicuntur. Prophetales faciunt David, id est, Psalterium, Isaiam, Jeremiam, Ezechielem, et duodecim prophetas et Danielem: quibus in Novo respondet liber Apocalypsis (Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali (Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498), British Museum IB.37895, Vol. 1. See also Walafrid Strabo, Glossa ordinaria, De Canonicis et Non Canonicis Libris. PL 113:19-24).

127 Bruce Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York: Oxford, 1957), p. 180.

128 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

129 Cardinal Caietan (Jacob Thomas de Vio), Commentary on all the Authentic Historical Books of the Old Tesdtament, In ult. Cap., Esther. Taken from A Disputation on Holy Scripture by William Whitaker (Cambridge: University, 1849), p. 48. See also B.F. Westcott's A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (Cambridge: MacMillan, 1889), p. 475.

130 In one way, fore and aft, because the Church everywhere bearing fruit is broadened; it walks in the light of the face of God, and, his face revealed, gazes on the glory of God. In another way, fore and aft, he implies that the six-fold wings, which number twenty-four, are the books of the Old Testament, which we take up on canonical authority of the same number, just as there are twenty-four elders sitting above the thrones (Primasius, Commentary on the Apocalypse of John, Book I, Chapter IV. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Aliter, ante et retro, quod ubicunque fructificans dilatetur Ecclesia, in lumine vultus Dei ambulat, et revelata facie gloriam Dei speculatur. Aliter, ante et retro alas senas, quae viginti quatuor subsumantur, Veteris Testamenti libros insinuat, quos ejusdem numeri canonica auctoritate suscipimus, tanquam viginti quatuor seniores tribunalia praesidentes. (Primasius, Commentariorum Super Apocalypsim B. Joannis, Book I, Cap. IV. PL 68:818).

131Library of the Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church (Oxford: Parker, 1845), Gregory the Great, Morals on the Book of Job, Volume II, Parts III and IV, Book XIX.34, p.424.
Latin Reference: De qua re non inordinate agimus, si ex libris, licet non canonicis, sed tamen ad aedificationem Ecclesiae editis, testimonium proferamus. Eleazar namque in praelio elephantem feriens stravit, sed sub ipso quem exstinxit occubuit (I Mach. VI, 46) (PL 76.119).

132 William Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers (Collegeville: Liturgical, 1979), Volume III, p. 313.

133 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

134 Each of them has six wings. They raise the Church to the heights by the perfection of their teaching. For the number six is called perfect for this reason, that it is the first number completed by its own parts. Indeed one, which is a sixth part of six, and two which is a third, and three, which is half, make up six itself. In another way, six wings of four animals, which makes twenty-four, suggest the books of the entire Old Testament, by which the authority of the evangelists is supported and their truth is proven (The Venerable Bede, Commentary on Revelation. PL 93:144).
Latin Reference: Singula eorum habebant alas senas. Perfectione suae doctrinae Ecclesiam ad alta sublevant. Senarius enim numerus ideo perfectus dicitur, quia primus suis partibus impletur. Unum quippe, quod est sexta senarii pars, et duo, quod est tertia, et tria, quod est dimidium, eumdem senarium faciunt. Aliter. Alae senae quatuor animalium, quae sunt viginti quatuor, totidem veteris instrumenti libros insinuant, quibus evangelistarum et fulcitur auctoritas, et veritas comprobatur (The Venerable Bede, Commentary on Revelation. PL 93:144).

135 It is a wondrous thing and exceedingly astounding! All of the Levites, whom Moses and Aaron counted according to the instruction of the Lord through their families on the male side at one table and beyond, were twenty-two thousand (just as the Hebrews had twenty-two letters and there are twenty-two books of divine authority in the Old Testament). That it is this same thing that is written in Deuteronomy: Then Moses wrote down this law, and gave it to the priests, the sons of Levi, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and to all the elders of Israel (Agobard of Lyons, To Bishop Bernard, concerning the privileges and rights of the priesthood VI).
Latin Reference: Et res mira, et vehementer stupenda! Omnes Levitae quos numeraverunt Moyses et Aaron juxta praeceptum Domini per familias suas in genere masculino a mense uno et supra, fuerunt viginti duo millia, sicut viginti duae litterae apud Hebraeos, et viginti duo libri divinae auctoritatis in Veteri Testamento. Ut id ipsum sit quod in Deuteronomio dicitur: Scripsit itaque Moyses hanc legem et tradidit eam sacerdotibus filiis Levi, qui portabant arcam foederis Domini, et cunctis senioribus Israelis. (Agobard of Lyons, Ad Bernardum Episcopum, De Privilegio et Jure Sacerdotii VI. PL 107:133C).

136 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

137 XVIII. While the testimony fitting to your error has failed your perversity in the prophets of God, you have established for yourself to speak of a certain new prophet: Have mercy, Lord, on the people called by your name, and on Israel whom your have named your firstborn! You have also added to this opinion such an interpretation: Equality itself, you say, is not in the divinity, but in the humanity alone and in the taken-on flesh, which he received from the Virgin. Behold the fraud in the name of a prophet! Behold the perversity in the interpretation of this idea. And not in vain is it fitting that the new scholar find for himself a new prophet. Just as King Jeroboam departing from the true worship of God established for himself new gods, that he, lost, might lead astray the people subject to him; concerning this it was forecast much earlier in Deuteronomy: He abandoned God who made him and scoffed at the Rock of his salvation; so you, departing from the true God and the proper Son of God, have established a nominative God and an adopted redeemer Son for yourself, whom our fathers did not know. But you have left the God who freed you and forgotten the God your redeemer. In the book of Jesus son of Sirach this aforementioned idea is read, which blessed Jerome and Isidore judged, without doubt, to be among the apocrypha, i.e. doubtful scriptures (Alcuin, Adversus Elipandum Toletanum, Liber Primus XVIII. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Dum tuae perversitati defecerunt in prophetis Dei testimonia errori tuo convenientia, finxisti tibi novum quemdam prophetam dixisse: Miserere, Domine, plebi tuae, super quam invocatum est nomen tuum, et Israel, quem coaequasti primogenito tuo. Addidisti quoque huic sententiae talem interpretationem: Aequalitas, inquis, ista non est in divinitate, sed in sola humanitate, et in carne adoptiva, quam accepit de Virgine. Ecce falsitas in nomine prophetae! Ecce perversitas in interpretatione sententiae! Et non frustra oportebat novum doctorem, novum sibi invenire prophetam. Sicut Jeroboam rex a veri Dei cultu recedens novos sibi finxit deos, ut perditus subjectum sibi perderet populum; de quo multo ante praedictum est in Cantico Deuteronomii: Dereliquit Deum factorem suum, et recessit a Deo salutari suo; sic tu a vero Deo et proprio Filio Dei recedens, nuncupativum Deum et adoptivum filium redemptorem tibi fingis, quem non noverunt patres nostri. Tu vero Deum qui te liberavit, dereliquisti, et oblitus es Dei Redemptoris tui. In libro Jesu filii Sirac haec praefata sententia legitur, quem librum beatus Hieronymus atque Isidorus inter apocryphas, id est, dubias Scripturas, deputatum esse absque dubitatione testantur (Alcuin, Adversus Elipandum Toletanum, Liber Primus XVIII. PL 101:253C-254A).

138Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

139 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

140 The same Church could also, according to another interpretation, be figured in the twenty-four elders. For this number is composed of the number six and the number four, because four sixes make twenty-four. The number six refers to works, because Almighty God completed His work in six days, and on the sixth day, at the sixth hour, redeemed man. The number four, however, refers to the four books of the Gospels. Because, however, the Holy Church, whether in the Old Testament or in the New, recalls and venerates the works of God, and preserves the books of the Holy Gospels, it [i.e. the Church] is also rightly understood in the twenty-four elders, or certainly according to the twenty-four books of the Old Testament, which are used according to canonical authority, in which the New Testament, and those things that are brought to fulfillment in it are acknowledged to be foretold. Whence also the Evangelist says of the two thieves who were crucified with Christ: this was done, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says, 'And he was classed among the wicked…'
And each of the four animals had six wings. The wings of the animals signify the two Testaments, by which the Church is carried up to the Heavens. However, while there are two Testaments, the spiritual wings of the same Church, on account of this twin testament, which is found in the twelve tribes of Israel, or in the twelve apostles, these wings are multiplied, two by twelve, and they give twenty-four wings. For two twelves are twenty-four. In another way, the number twelve consists of the parts of the number seven, that is, of the number three and the number four. We can say either four threes or three fours make twelve, which is a sacred number, the number of the twelve Apostles. In the number three, faith in the Holy Trinity is understood, and in the number four, the four parts of the world. Twelve is thus multiplied by two, and we get twenty-four. The number of the elect is expressed in terms of this number, by whose preaching the faith of the Holy Trinity is spread to the four corners of the world, and the whole world is raised to Heaven. We can also understand these wings in another way. The natural law is understood in the first wing, the Law of Moses in the second wing, in the third the prophets, in the fourth the Gospels, in the fifth the Epistles of the Apostles, in the sixth Canonical authority, or the doctrine of Catholic men such as Jerome, Augustine and other holy Fathers (Haymo of Halberstadt, Exposition of the Apocalypse of S. John, Book 7, Book I, Chapter IV. PL 117:1007, 1010. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Potest et sub alio intellectu eadem Ecclesia figurari in viginti quatuor senioribus. Constat enim hic numerus ex senario et quaternario, quia quater seni viginti quatuor sunt. Senarius refertur ad operationem, quia sex diebus Deus omnipotens omnia opera sua perfecit, et sexto die atque sexta hora hominem redemit. Quaternarius vero ad quatuor libros sancti Evangelii pertinet. Quia ergo sancta Ecclesia sive in Veteri Testamento sive in Novo, Dei operationem recolit, et veneratur, et libros sancti Evangelii custodit, et recte in viginti quatuor senioribus comprehenditur, vel certe propter viginti quatuor libros Veteris Testamenti, quibus utitur secundum canonicam auctoritatem, in quibus Novum Testamentum, et ea quae in eo completa sunt praenuntiata cognoscit. Unde et Evangelista dicit (Marc. XV) de duobus latronibus qui cum Domino sunt crucifixi: ideo hoc factum, ut impleretur Scriptura, quae dicit: Et cum iniquis deputatus est (Isa. LIII). (Haymo of Halberstadt, Expositionis In Apocalypsin B. Joannis, Libri Septem, Book I, Chapter IV. PL 117:1007)
Et quatuor animalia singula eorum habebant alas senas. Alae animalium significant duo Testamenta, quibus Ecclesia ad coelestia supportatur: sed cum duo sint Testamenta, ejusdem Ecclesiae spirituales alae, propter geminum testamentum, quod in duodecim tribubus Israel, vel in duodecim apostolis invenitur, ipsae alae per binarium duodecies multiplicantur, et viginti quatuor alas reddunt. Bis enim duodeni viginti quatuor sunt. Aliter duodenarius numerus constat ex partibus septenarii, id est ex tribus et quatuor. Sive etiam dicamus, ter quaterni, sive quater terni duodecim fiunt, qui numerus sacratus est numero duodecim apostolorum. In ternario autem fides sanctae Trinitatis intelligitur. In quaternario autem quatuor mundi partes. Ducatur ergo duodenarius per binarium, et efficiuntur viginti et quatuor. Quo numero summa electorum exprimitur, quibus fidem sanctae Trinitatis per quadripartitum orbem praedicantibus, totus mundus ad coelestia sustollitur. Possumus et has alas senas aliter intelligere. Prima ala intelligitur lex naturalis, secunda lex Moysi, tertia prophetae, quarta Evangelium, quinta Epistolae apostolorum, sexta canonica auctoritas, sive doctrina catholicorum virorum, Hieronymi, Augustini, caeterorumque sanctorum Patrum (Haymo of Halberstadt, Expositionis In Apocalypsin B. Joannis, Libri Septem, Book I, Chapter IV. PL 117:1010).

141 The Church can be signified in the twenty-four elders under a different interpretation on account of the perfection of six which is completed in the four books of the holy Gospel. For the number six is held as perfect, for this reason that in six days God is thought to have completed all his works and in the sixth age of the world it is told that he reformed man. And so since the Church fulfills the works of the Fathers of the Old and New Testaments completed in the six ages of the world, just as in six days, and the four books of the holy Gospel, it is all correctly described in twenty-four elders. For four times six makes twenty-four. Or certainly, since it uses twenty-four books of the older Testament which it accepts with canonical authority in which it also recognizes that the New Testament was revealed, the Church is therefore figured in twenty-four elders. For this reason, the preaching of the New Testament is fruitful since strengthened from the Old, just as the Church takes the number from these same [books], by which it is perfected in sanctity. (Ambrose Autpert, Expositionis in Apocalypsin, Libri III (4, 4). Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Potest autem sub alio intellectu in uigintiquattuor senioribus Ecclesia figurari, propter senariam scilicet perfectionem, quae per quattuor sancti Euangelii libros consummatur. Senarius etenim numerus ideo perfectus habetur, quia in sex diebus cuncta opera sua Deus fecisse perhibetur, atque in sexta mundi aetate hominem reformasse narratur. Quia itaque siue Veteris, siue Noui Testamenti Patrum opera, in sex mundi aetatibus tamquam sex diebus peracta, quattuor sancti Euangelii libros adimplet Ecclesia, recte in uigintiquattuor senioribus tota describitur. Quater enim seni, uigintiquattuor faciunt. Vel certe, quia prioris Testamenti uigintiquattuor libris utitur, quos et auctoritate canonica suscepit, in quibus etiam Nouum Testamentum reuelatum agnoscit, idcirco uigintiquattuor senioribus Ecclesia figuratur. Ideo enim est Noui Testamenti praedicatio fructuosa, quia ex Veteri roborata, tamquam scililicet ab eisdem trahat numerum Ecclesia, quibus in sanctitate perficitur (Ambrosii Autperti, Expositionis in Apocalypsin, Libri III (4, 4), Cura et Studio, Roberti Weber O.S.B., Turnholti, Typographi Brepols Editores Pontifici, MCMLXXV).

142 In Holy Scripture, there are four kinds of speech: historical, prophetic, proverbial and simple. History is the telling of past events, as in the five books of Moses. In this, although the matters concerning which it is written, are full of figures, nevertheless, the lawgiver declares those things either ordered by the Lord, or fulfilled by himself or his734 people. Likewise, the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, Esther, the four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles pertain to sacred history. For Tobit, Judith, and Maccabees, although they are read for the instruction of the Church, nevertheless do not have complete authority. Speech is prophetic when future things are predicted. That is found in the Psalms, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the twelve prophets. This speech calls out in plain language, as is that of Isaiah Behold, a young woman shall conceive. In which it makes use of many proverbial things as that same author on the same matter: There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots. The proverbial kind is figured speech, sometimes resounding, sometimes feeling, and treating of morals. For also the prophets, as we have said, often take this up for themselves, but nevertheless it is especially ascribed to moral teaching. This is received in the proverbs of Solomon, in the Song of Songs, in Wisdom, in Ecclesiasticus. Job too is judged partly historical, partly prophetic and partly proverbial. Ecclesiastes is also proverbial in part, but for the most part pursues doctrine in a simple manner. Doctrine is simple which teaches simply concerning faith and morals (Radulphus Falvicencius, Commentary on Leviticus, Preface to Book XIV. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: In sacra Scriptura species dictionis quatuor sunt: historica, prophetica, prouerbialis, & simpliciter docens. Historia est praeteritarum rerum narratio, ut in quinque libris Moysi. In quibus licet res de quibus agitur, plenae sint figuris: historialiter tamen lagislator ea vel à Domino iussa , vel à se & à populo illo completa esse pronunciat. Item Iesu Naue liber, Iudicum, Ruth, Regum , Paralipomenon, Ezras, Esther, quatuor Euangelica , Actus Apostolorum, ad diuinam historiam pertinent. Nam Thobias, Iudith & Machabaeorum, quamuis ad instructionem Ecclesiae legantur, perfectam tamen non habent autoritatem. Prophetica locutio est, cum futura praedicuntur. Ista in Psalmis reperitur; Isaia, Ieremia, Iezechiele, Daniele, duodecim Prophetis. Haec plano sermone nonnulla pronunciat, ut est illud Isaiae: Ecce virgo concipiet, & pariet filium. In quam plurimis prouerbiali utitur, ut idem de eadem re: Exiet virga de radice esse,& flos de radice eius ascendet. Prouerbialis species est figurata locutio, aliud sonans & aliud sentiens, & dt moribus tractans. Nam & prophetiae (ut diximus) hanc sibi saepe assumunt: sed tamen praecipuae morali doctrinae, asscribitur. Haec in prouerbiis Salomonis accipitur, in Canticis Canticorum, in Sapientia, in Ecclesiastico , Iob autem pàrtim hisoricus, partim propheticus, partim vero prouerbialis inuenitur. Ecclesiastes quoq; prouerbialis in parte; sed in maiori simplicê doctrinam prosequitur. Simplex doctrina est, quae de fide ac moribus simpliciter docet (Radulphus Falvicencius, Leuiticum Moysi, Liber Decimusquartus, Praefatio.).

143George Tavard, Holy Writ or Holy Church (London: Burns & Oates, 1959), p. 16.

144 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

145 After that we showed what the matter of the divine Scriptures is and how the matter treats of its subject in a triple sense, historical, allegorical and tropological. Now it is appropriate to show in which books that which is reckoned in the name of divine judgement to be Scripture. There are two Testaments which include all the divine Scriptures in one body: the Old and the New. Both are divided into three orders. The Old Testament contains the Law, the Prophets and the Hagiographies, which interpreted, means either the holy writers or the holy things written. There are five volumes in the Law: that is Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Genesis is so called from generation, Exodus from 'exit' - going out - Leviticus from the Levites, the book of Numbers, because in it the children of Israel are numbered, Deuteronomy on account of the Law, and in Hebrew, 'bresith', 'hellesmoth', 'vagetra', 'vegedaber', 'adabarim'.
There are eight volumes in the order of the Prophets. The first in the book of Joshua, who is also Jesu Nave and Josue Bennun, that is son of Nun; the second the book of Judges, which is called Sophthim, the third the book of Samuel, which is the first and second book of Kings, the fourth is Malachi, which is understood as of the Kings, which is third and fourth Kings; the fifth Isaiah, the sixth Jeremiah; the seventh Ezechiel; the eighth the book of the twelve prophets, which is called 'thareasra'. They are called prophetic because they are 'of the prophets', however, not all are prophecies. A prophet is so called on account of three things: the office, the grace and the mission. The word is also frequently found in common use to indicate prophets who are prophets either on account of the office of prophet or on account of having clearly been sent as prophets, as is the case here. According to this definition, David and Daniel and several others are not said to be prophets, but hagiographers. There are nine volumes in the order of the Hagiographers: first Job, second the book of Psalms, third the Proverbs of Solomon, which is called 'Parabolae' in Greek and 'Masloth' in Hebrew, the fourth Ecclesiastes which is translated as 'coeleth' in Hebrew and 'concionator' [lit.: the lecturer of the people, speechmaker] in Latin; the fifth, 'syra syrim', that is the Canticle of Canticles; the sixth Daniel, the seventh Paralipomenon, which in Latin is called the Words of Days and in Hebrew is called 'dabreniamin'; the eighth Esdras and the ninth Esther. These are all, that is five and eight and nine, making twenty-two, just as do the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, so that the life of the just may be instructed in the way of salvation by as many books as letters educate the tongues of the knowledgeable in eloquence. There are some other books besides these in the Old Testament, which are sometimes read, but they are not written in the body of the text or in the authoritative canon, such as the books of Tobias, Judith, and the Maccabees, and the one called the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus. The New Testament contains Gospels, Apostles and Fathers. There are four Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Likewise there are four volumes of Apostolic writings: the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of St. Paul, the Canonical Epistles and the Apocalypse, which added to the twenty-two books of the Old Testament mentioned above make thirty, and Holy Scripture is completed in this corpus. The writings of the Fathers are not counted in the body of this text, because they do not add anything to it, but they explain what it is that is in the above mentioned, and they extend it more broadly and make it clearer. (Hugh of St. Victor, De sacramentis. Prologue, Cap. VII. PL 176:185D-186D. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Postquam demonstravimus quae sit materia divinarum Scripturarum et qualiter de subjecta sibi materia tractent in triplici sensu, historiae, allegoriae, tropologiae, nunc ostendere convenit in quibus libris ea quae jure divinitatis nomine censetur, scriptura consistat. Duo sunt Testamenta quae omne divinarum Scripturarum corpus concludunt: Vetus scilicet et Novum. Utrumque tribus ordinibus distinguitur. Vetus Testamentum continet legem, prophetas, hagiographos, quod interpretatum sonat sanctos scriptores vel sancta scribentes. In lege continentur quinque volumina; scilicet Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium. Genesis autem a generatione dicitur; Exodus ab exitu; Leviticus a levitis. Liber numeri, quia in eo numerantur filii Israel. Deuteronomium secunda lex, Hebraice autem, bresith, hellesmoth, vagetra, vegedaber, adabarim: In ordine prophetarum octo sunt volumina. Primus liber Josue, qui et Jesu Nave, et Josue Bennun, id est filius Nun; secundus liber Judicum, qui dicitur Sopthim; tertius liber Samuelis, qui est primus et secundus Regum; quartus Malachim quod interpretatur regum, qui est tertius et quartus Regum; quintus Isaias; sextus Jeremias; septimus Ezechiel; octavus liber duodecim prophetarum qui dicitur, thareasra. Hi prophetici dicuntur eo quod prophetarum sunt, etiamsi non omnes prophetiae sint. Propheta autem tribus modis dicitur: officio, gratia, missione. Vulgo autem usitato vocabulo magis prophetae vocantur, qui vel officio vel aperta missione prophetae sunt; sicut in hoc loco. Secundum quam acceptionem David et Daniel et caeteri complures, prophetae non dicuntur, sed hagiographi. In ordine hagiographorum novem volumina continentur. Primum Job; secundum liber Psalmorum; tertium Proverbia Salomonis quae Graece parabolae, Hebraice, masloth, dicuntur; quartum Ecclesiastes, qui Hebraice, coeleth, Latine concionator interpretatur; quintum, syra syrim, id est Cantica canticorum; sextum Daniel; septimum Paralipomenon, quod Latine sonat verba dierum, Hebraice, dabreniamin, dicitur; octavum Esdras; nonum Esther. Qui omnes, id est quinque octo novem: similiter faciunt viginti duos quot litteras etiam alphabetum continet Hebraicum, ut totidem libris erudiatur vita justorum ad salutem, quot litteris lingua discentium ad eloquentiam instruitur. Sunt praeterea in Veteri Testamento alii quidam libri qui leguntur quidem, sed in corpore textus vel in canone auctoritatis non scribuntur. Ut est liber Tobiae et Judith, et Machabaeorum et qui inscribitur liber Sapientiae Salomonis et Ecclesiasticus. Novum Testamentum continet Evangelia, apostolos, Patres. Evangelia quatuor sunt: Matthaei, Marci, Lucae, Joannis. Apostolica volumina similiter quatuor: Actus apostolorum; Epistolae Pauli; Canonicae Epistolae, Apocalypsis: qui juncti cum superioribus viginti duobus Veteris Testamenti, triginta complent, in quibus corpus divinae paginae consummatur. Scriptura Patrum in corpore textus non computantur; quia non aliud adjiciunt, sed idipsum quod in supradictis continetur explanando et latius manifestiusque tractando extendunt (Hugh of St. Victor, De Sacramentis, Prologue, Cap. VII. PL 176:185D-186D.

Holy Scripture is contained in two testaments, namely the Old and the New. Each testament is divided into three subsections: the Old Testament contains the law, the prophets, and the hagiography. The New contains the Gospel, the apostles, and the fathers. The first subsection of the Old Testament is the law, which the Hebrews call thorath holds the Pentateuch, that is the five books of Moses. In this subsection the first is Beresith, which is Genesis; second Hellesmoth, which is Exodus; third is Vagethra, which is Leviticus; fourth Vagedaber, which is Numbers; fifth Elleaddaberim, which is Deuteronomy. The second subsection is of prophets and contains eight texts. The first is Bennum, that is, Son of Nun, who is called Joshua and Jesus and Jesus Nave. The second is Sathim, which is Judges; third Samuel, which is first and second Kings; fourth Malachi, which is third and fourth Kings; fifth Isaiah; sixth Jeremiah; seventh Ezekiel; eighth Thereasra, which is the twelve prophets. The third subsection has nine books. First is Job, second David, third Masloth, which in Greek is Parabolae but in Latin is Proverbs, i.e. of Solomon; fourth Coeleth, which is Ecclesiastes; fifth Sirasirim, which is the Song of Songs; sixth Daniel, seventh Dabreiamin, which is Chronicles; eighth Ezra; ninth Esther. They all add up to the number twenty-two. Moreover, there are certain other books, such as the Wisdom of Solomon, the book of Jesus son of Sirach, and the book of Judith, and Tobias, and the books of the Maccabees which are read but are not considered in the canon. To these twenty-two books of the Old Testament...Then the writings of the holy fathers, that is Jerome, Augustine, Ambrose, Gregory, Isidore, Origen, Bede and the other doctors, which are countless. These patristic writings are not counted in the text of Holy Scripture, just as in the Old Testament, as we have said, there are certain writings which are not written in the canon and yet are read, like the Wisdom of Solomon, etc. And so the text of Holy Scripture, like an entire corpus, is principally contained in thirty books, twenty-two of these are gathered in the Old and eight in the New Testament (Hugh of St. Victor, De Scripturis et Scriptoribus Sacris Praenotatiunculae, Cap. VI, De ordine, numero et auctoritate librorum sacrae Scripturae. PL 175:15D-16. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Omnis divina Scriptura in duobus Testamentis continetur Veteri videlicet et Novo. Utrumque Testamentum tribus ordinibus distinguitur: Vetus Testamentum continet legem, prophetas, agiographos. Novum autem Evangelium, apostolos, patres. Primus ordo Veteris Testamenti, id est lex, quam Hebraei thorath nominant, pentateuchon habet, id est quinque libros Moysi. In hoc ordine primus est Beresith, qui est Genesis. Secundus Hellesmoth, qui est Exodus. Tertius Vagethra, qui est Leviticus. Quartus Vagedaber, qui est Numeri. Quintus Elleaddaberim, qui est Deuteronomius. Secundus ordo est prophetarum, hic continet octo volumina. Primum est Bennum, id est filius Nun, qui et Josue et Jesus, et Jesus Nave nuncupatur. Secundum est Sothim, qui est liber Judicum. Tertium est Samuel, qui est primus et secundus Regum. Quartum Malachim, qui est tertius et quartus Regum. Quintum est Esaias. Sextum Jeremias, Septimum Ezechiel. Octavum Thereasra qui est duodecim prophetarum. Deinde tertius ordo novem habet libros. Primus est Job. Secundus David. Tertius Masloth, quod graece Parabolae, latine Proverbia sonat, videlicet Salomonis. Quartus Coeleth, qui est Ecclesiastes. Quintus Sirasirim, id est Cantica canticorum. Sextus Daniel. Septimus Dabreiamin, qui est Paralipomenon. Octavus Esdras. Nonus Esther. Omnes ergo fiunt numero viginti duo. Sunt praeterea alii quidam libri, ut Sapientia Salomonis, liber Jesu filii Sirach, et liber Judith, et Tobias, et libri Machabaeorum, qui leguntur quidem, sed non scribuntur in canone. His viginti duobus libris Veteris Testamenti (Hugh of St. Victor, De Scripturis et Scriptoribus Sacris Praenotatiunculae, Cap. VI, De ordine, numero et auctoritate librorum sacrae Scripturae. PL 175:15D-16).

146 F.F. Bruce, Tha Canon of Scripture (Downers Grove: Intervarsity, 1988), pp. 99-100.

147 Holy Scripture is contained in two testaments, namely the Old and the New. Each testament is divided into three subsections: the Old Testament contains the law, the prophets, and the hagiography. The New contains the Gospel, the apostles, and the fathers. The first subsection of the Old Testament is the law, which the Hebrews call thorath holds the Pentateuch, that is the five books of Moses. In this subsection the first is Beresith, which is Genesis; second Hellesmoth, which is Exodus; third is Vagethra, which is Leviticus; fourth Vagedaber, which is Numbers; fifth Elleaddaberim, which is Deuteronomy. The second subsection is of prophets and contains eight texts. The first is Bennum, that is, Son of Nun, who is called Joshua and Jesus and Jesus Nave. The second is Sathim, which is Judges; third Samuel, which is first and second Kings; fourth Malachi, which is third and fourth Kings; fifth Isaiah; sixth Jeremiah; seventh Ezekiel; eighth Thereasra, which is the twelve prophets. The third subsection has nine books. First is Job, second David, third Masloth, which in Greek is Parabolae but in Latin is Proverbs, i.e. of Solomon; fourth Coeleth, which is Ecclesiastes; fifth Sirasirim, which is the Song of Songs; sixth Daniel, seventh Dabreiamin, which is Chronicles; eighth Ezra; ninth Esther. However, they are twenty-four in number in all. There are other books also besides these, such as the Wisdom of Solomon, the Book of Jesu, son of Sirach, the Book of Judith also, Tobias and the book of the Maccabees, which are read, in fact, but are not written in the Canon (Richard of St. Victor, Tractatus Exceptionum: Qui continet originem et discretionem artium, situmque terrarum, et summam historiarum; distinctus in quatuor libros. Book II, Cap. IX. De duobus Testamentis. P.L. 177:193. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Omnis divina Scriptura in duobus Testamentis continetur, Veteri videlicet et Novo. Utrumque Testamentum tribus ordinibus distinguitur, Vetus Testamentum continet legem, et prophetas et agiographos. Novum autem: Evangelia, Apostolos, Patres. Primus ordo Veteris Testamenti, id est, lex quam Hebraei Torath nominant, Pentateuchum, id est quinque libros Moysi continet hoc ordine: Primus est Bresith, id est Genesis; secundus Hessesmot, id est Exodus; tertius Vagethra, qui est Leviticus; quartus Vagedaber, qui est Numeri; quintus Adabarim, qui est Deuteronomion. Secundus ordo est Prophetarum. Hic continet octo volumina: Primum, Josue Hennum, id est filium, Num, qui et Josue, et Jesus Nave, et Jesus nuncupatur; secundum, Soptim, qui est liber Judicum; tertium, Samuel, qui est primus et secundus Regum; quartum, Malachim, qui est tertius et quartus Regum; quintum, Isaiam; sextum, Jeremiam; septimum, Ezechielem; octavum, Thareastra, qui est liber duodecim prophetarum. Tertius ordo est agiographorum. Hic continet novem libros. Primus est Job; secundus Psalterium; tertius Maslot, qui Graece Parabolae, Latine Proverbia sonat; quartus Celeth, qui est Ecclesiastes; quintus Sira sirim, id est Cantica canticorum; sextus Daniel; septimus Dabreniamin, qui est Paralipomenon; octavus Esdras; nonus Esther. Omnes vero numero viginti quatuor. Sunt praeterea et alii libri, ut Sapientia Salomonis, liber Jesu filii Sirach, et liber Judith, et Tobias, liber Machabaeorum, qui leguntur quidem, sed non scribuntur in Canone (Richard of St. Victor, Tractatus Exceptionum: Qui continet originem et discretionem artium, situmque terrarum, et summam historiarum; distinctus in quatuor libros. Book II, CAP. IX. De duobus Testamentis. P.L. 177:193).

148 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

149 And so I was glad to take up for your sake the questions propounded, and reply to them, with allowance made for my present opportunities and urgent affairs, not as I would, but as best I can for the while. The questions were: what do I believe to be the number of books in the Old and New Testament, and who were their authors…On the number of the books I find in my reading diverse and numerous opinions given by the fathers; and so I follow Jerome, teacher of the Catholic Church, whom I hold to be the surest witness in establishing the basis of the literal interpretation. Just as it is accepted that there are twenty-two letters in the Hebrew alphabet, so I believe without doubt that there are twenty?two books in the Old Testament, divided into three categories. The first contains the Pentateuch, that is the five books of Moses, which are divided into this number to represent the different sacraments,' though the historical subject?matter is admittedly continuous. These are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The second contains prophecies and is completed in eight books. The reason why they rather than the others should be called prophecies, although some of them seem to narrate straightforward history, while others, like Daniel and the Book of Psalms, while describing prophecy, are not reckoned among the prophetic books, was not among the questions put to me; nor does my limitation in time or parchment permit me to expound it now, nor yet the impatience of the bearer. Among these, then, are numbered Joshua, and Judges, to which Ruth is also attached, since the story told in it was set in the days of the judges; also Samuel, whose story is completed in the first two Books of Kings, and Malachim, in the two following. These are followed by Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel-reckoned one book each-and the book of the Twelve Prophets. The third category consists of the Hagiographa, containing Job, the Psalter, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Daniel, Chronicles, Esdras and Esther. And thus the total of the twenty-two books of the Old Testamen is made up, though some reckon that Ruth and the Lamentations of Jeremiah should be added to the number of the Hagiographa, and thus the total increased to twenty-four. All this is to be found in the prologue to the Books of Kings, which St. Jerome calls the armour-plated front of all the scriptures he himself made flow from the Hebrew source for the understanding of those of Latin speech. The book of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobit, and the Shepherd are not reckoned in the canon, as St. Jerome also asserts, nor the Book of Maccabees either, which is divided into two, of which the first has the savour of Hebrew eloquence, the second of Greek, as its style proves. Whether the book called the Shepherd anywhere survives I do not know; but it is certain that Jerome and Bede bear witness that they saw and read it.
To these are added eight books of the New Testament; they start with the Gospels of Matthew, of Mark, of Luke and of John, and the fifteen Epistles of Paul gathered in one book. Although it is the common, indeed almost universal, opinion that there are only fourteen Epistles of Paul, ten to churches, four to individuals, if indeed the Epistle to the Hebrews is to be reckoned among them-and Jerome, the teacher of teachers, seems to impute it to him in his preface to it, when he demolishes the arguments of those who maintained that it is not Paul's. But the fifteenth is that which is written to the church of the Laodiceans, and although it is rejected by all authorities, as Jerome says, yet it was written by the Apostle; nor is this conclusion based on other men's opinions, but on the sure foundation of the Apostle's own testimony. He recalls it in the Epistle to the Colossians in these words: 'And when this letter has been read among you, have it read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and see that you have read to you also the letter of the Laodiceans.' There follow seven canonical Epistles in one book, then the Acts of the Apostles in another, and finally the Apocalypse.
It is the well-known and undoubted tradition of the Church that this is the number of the books which are accepted into the canon of the Holy Scriptures; which enjoy such great authority among all men, that no place is left in sane minds for doubt or contradiction, but that they were written by the finger of God. A lawful and just warning, and condemnation as a sinner, falls on him who in the mart of manners and speech, especially in the forum of the faithful, does not accept, openly and publicly, the silver currency of this divine utterance, tried by the fire of the Holy Spirit, purged from all earthly dross and stain by a sevenfold purgation. Let faith find a sure resting place in these facts and in those things which find their proved and just support in them; since he is an infidel or a heretic who dares to reject them (John of Salisbury, The Letters of John of Salisbury, W.J. Millor S.J. and C.N.L. Brooke, editors (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), Letter 209, pp. 317, 319, 321, 323, 325).
Latin Reference: Mihi itaque pro vobis complacuit, ut propositas exciperem quaestiones, et eis, habita ratione temporis et inevitabilium necessitatum, responderem, etsi non pro voto, certe pro tempore. Quaesitum vero est quem credam numerum esse librorum Veteris et Novi Testamenti, et quos auctores eorum,.. Quia ergo de numero librorum diversas et multiplices Patrum lego sententias, catholicae Ecclesiae doctorem Hieronymum sequens, quem in construendo litterae fundamento probatissimum habeo, sicut constat esse XXII litteras Hebraeorum, sic XXII libros Veteris Testamenti in tribus distinctos ordinibus indubitanter credo. Et primus quidem ordo Pentateuchum continet, quinque scilicet libros Moysi sic pro sacramentorum varietate divisos, et si continuam de historia constet esse materiam. Hi sunt Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, liber Numerorum, Deuteronomium. Secundus ordo continet prophetias, et octo libris expletur, qui quare prae caeteris dicantur prophetiae, cum aliqui eorum nudam referre videantur historiam, et alii prophetiam texentes, sicut Daniel, liberque Psalmorum, in propheticis non censeantur operibus, nec in quaestione propositum est, nec temporis, aut schedae angustia nunc patitur explicare, sed nec instantia portitoris. In his ergo numerantur, Josue, liber Judicum, cui compingitur et Ruth, quoniam in diebus Judicum, facta narratur historia, itemque Samuel, qui in duobus primis Regum voluminibus, et Malachim, qui in duobus sequentibus expletur, quos sequuntur voluminibus singulis, Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, liber XII prophetarum in hagiographis consistit. Tertius ordo continens Job, Psalterium, Eccles. Cantica canticorum, Danielem, Paralipomenon, Esdram et Esther.
Et sic colliguntur in summa XXII libri Veteris Testamenti, licet nonnulli librum Ruth et Lamentationes Jeremiae, in hagiographorum numero censeant supputandos, ut in XXIV summa omnium dilatetur. Et haec quidem inveniuntur in prologo libri Regum, quem beatus Hieronymus vocat galeatum principem omnium Scripturarum, quae ab ipso de fonte Hebraeorum manaverunt ad intelligentiam Latinorum. Liber vero Sapientiae, et Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobias et Pastor, ut idem Pater asserit, non reputantur in Canone, sed neque Machabaeorum liber, qui in duo volumina scinditur, quorum primum Hebraeam redolet eloquentiam, alterum Graecam, quod stylus ipse convincit, ille autem qui Pastor inscribitur, an alicubi sit nescio, sed certum est quod Hieronymus et Beda illum se vidisse et legisse testantur.
His adduntur Novi Testamenti octo volumina, scilicet Evangelium Matthaei, Marci, Lucae, Joannis, Epistolae Pauli XV uno volumine comprehensae, licet sit vulgata, et fere omnium communis opinio non esse nisi XIV, decem ad Ecclesias, quatuor ad personas: si tamen illa quae ad Hebraeos est, connumeranda est Epistolis Pauli, quod in praefatione ejus astruere videtur doctorum doctor Hieronymus, illorum dissolvens argutias, qui eam Pauli non esse contendebant. Caeterum, quinta decima est illa quae Ecclesiae Laodicensium scribitur, et licet, ut ait Hieronymus, ab omnibus explodatur, tamen ab Apostolo scripta est: neque sententia haec de aliorum praesumitur opinione, sed ipsius Apostoli testimonio roboratur. Meminit enim ipsius in Epistola ad Colossenses his verbis: Cum lecta fuerit apud vos haec epistola, facite ut in Laodicensium Ecclesia legatur, et ea quae Laodicensium est legatur vobis. Sequuntur Epistolae Canonicae VII in uno volumine, deinde Actus apostolorum in alio, et tandem Apocalypsis.
Et hunc quidem numerum esse librorum, qui in sacrarum Scripturarum canonem admittuntur, celebris apud Ecclesiam et indubitata traditio est, quae tanta apud omnes vigent auctoritate, ut contradictionis aut dubietatis locum sanis mentibus non relinquant, quia conscriptae sunt digito Dei. Jure ergo et merito cavetur, et condemnatur ut reprobus, qui in morum verborumque commercio, praesertim in foro fidelium, hujus divini eloquii passim et publico non admittit argentum, quod igne Spiritus sancti examinatum est, purgatum ab omni faece terrena et macula purgatur septuplum. Istis ergo secure fides incumbat et illis, quae hinc probatum et debitum accipiunt firmamentum, quoniam infidelis aut haereticus est qui eis ausus fuerit refragari (John of Salisbury, Epistle 143: Ad Henricum Comitem Campaniae (A. D. 1165-66.). PL 199:124-127).

150 And so, concerning the field of the belly of Jesus, in which all storehouses of wisdom and knowledge have been hidden, just as from a mound of wheat surrounded by lilies, twenty?four loaves (according to the number of twenty?four elders standing in the sight of the Lamb) in order to curb all hunger, cleanse all disease, and remove all weakness, with however much care I have been able to gather in this little book by breaking asunder the battle lines of overflowing cares. For this number both of the sons of Jacob and of the apostles of Christ signifies twice the number twelve. And so under this number are contained the books of the Old Testament. And so the complete instruction of souls is offered from this number of books and no less full refreshment is taken from this number of loaves. And so running from the east and west and north and south to the sign of Abraham that they not fail on the way, they refresh themselves from the loaves of the compassion of the Lord and they show the perpetual refreshment to their flaws (Peter Cellensis, De Panibus. Cap 2, PL 202:935-936).
Latin Reference: De agro igitur ventris Jesu, in quo sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae absconditi, tanquam de acervo tritici vallato liliis, viginti quatuor panes (juxta numerum viginti quatuor seniorum, in conspectu Agni astantium) ad compescendam omnem famem, ad sanandam omnem pestem, et ad removendum omnem languorem; quanta potui sedulitate, interrumpendo curarum exundantium acies, in hoc opusculo collegi. Hic enim numerus, tam filiorum Jacob quam apostolorum Christi, duodenarium numerum duplicatum significat. Sub hoc etiam numero libri continentur Veteris Testamenti. Plenaria igitur instructio animarum praelibatur ex hoc numero librorum, et nihilominus plena refectio apprehenditur ex hoc panum numero. Ab oriente itaque et occidente, a septentrione et meridie ad signum Abrahae concurrentes; ne deficiant in via, de panibus miserationum Domini sese reficiunt, et defectibus suis perpetuam refectionem exhibent (Peter Cellensis, De Panibus, Cap 2. PL 202:935-936).

151 Concerning this (thing) whether sometimes by Christ he means mercy, through which we are saved and set free and today some assert on behalf of this since clearly canonical scripture never shows that he underwent punishment. Only in this the Book of Wisdom is written concerning that it is written thus: Wisdom protected the first-formed father of the world, when he alone had been created; she delivered him from his transgression, and gave him strength to rule all things. But this scripture is not from the canon nor has this idea been taken from canonical scripture, as the other things which are remembered from the fathers in this same book in praise of wisdom; for example, she did not abandon the just man who was sold (understand Joseph) and the rest...(Rupert of Deutz, Commentary on Genesis, Book III, Cap. 31).
Latin Reference: De quo utrum aliquando per Christum misericordiam consecutus sit, per quam salvati et liberati sumus, hodieque nonnulli dissertant, pro eo quia videlicet nusquam canonica Scriptura testatur illum egisse poenitentiam. In eo duntaxat qui inscribitur liber Sapientiae, de illo sic scriptum est: Haec (subauditur sapientia) illum, qui primus formatus est a Deo, pater orbis terrarum: cum solus esset creatus, custodivit, eduxit illum a delicto suo, et dedit illi virtutem continendi omnia. Verum haec Scriptura neque de canone est; neque de canonica Scriptura sumpta est sententia haec, quomodo caetera quae de patribus in eodem libro cum laude sapientiae commemorantur; verbi gratia, haec venditum justum, subaudis Joseph, non dereliquit, et reliqua (Rupert of Deutz, Commentariorum In Genesim, Book III, Cap. 31. PL 167:318A-318B).

152 Around the throne are twenty-four thrones and seated on the thrones are twenty-four elders dressed in robes with golden crowns on their heads. Just as on the seat the kingdom of God, so on these seats we understand the judicial power of the saints, about which is has been written, the saints will judge the nations. But why are the elders sitting on the seats shown to be twenty-four in number? On this matter the explanations of the Fathers diverge. For some (of whom St. Jerome is one and the most notable) wish the elders displayed throughout here to be understood as the twenty-four books of the old law. Some others understand in these same elders the Church born through the twin testaments of the patriarchs and the apostles, or certainly those who brought about the work's perfection, which is commended to six-fold number, by clear preaching of the Gospel. For four times six makes twenty-four. But we judging neither interpretation to be useless, nevertheless dare to bring forth something certain from the majesty of the scriptures (Commentary of Rupert, Abbot of Deutz, On the Apocalypse of John, Book III, Chapter IV. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Et in circuitu sedis sedilia viginti quatuor, et super thronos viginti quatuor seniores sedentes circumamicti vestimentis albis, et in capitibus eorum coronae aureae. Sicut in sede regnum Dei, sic in sedilibus judiciariam sanctorum intelligimus potestatem, qua scriptum est: Judicabunt sancti nationes. Quare autem numero viginti quatuor ostenduntur seniores in sedilibus sedentes? Super hoc diversa Patrum expositio est. Nam alii (quorum beatus Hieronymus unus et notissimus) libros priscae legis viginti quatuor hic per totidem seniores figuratos intelligi volunt. Alii nonnulli Ecclesiam per geminum Testamentum de patriarchis et apostolis generatam in eisdem senioribus intelligunt, aut certe illos qui perfectionem operis, quae senario numero commendatur, clara Evangelii praedicatione consummant. Nam quater seni viginti quatuor faciunt. Nos autem et hunc et illum sensum non inutilem approbantes, nihilominus tamen de majestate Scripturarum certum aliquid proferre conemur (Commentary of Rupert, Abbot of Deutz, Apocalypsim Joannis Apostoli Commentariorum, Book III, Cap. IV. PL 169:907C-908A).

153 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

154 The scripture of the Old Testament is written with the Holy Spirit as author and is divided into three parts: history, prophecy, and hagiography. History gives an account of things past, prophecy announces future things, hagiography proclaims the joys of the eternal life. This book (Psalms) takes its place in hagiography since it shines more fully with the joys of the eternal homeland (Honorius of Autun, Expositio In Psalmos: De mysterio psalmorum. PL 172.273B. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Scriptura Veteris Testamenti Spiritu sancto auctore scribitur, et in tria, id est in historiam, in prophetiam, in hagiographiam dividitur. Historia est, quae praeterita narrat; prophetia, quae futura nuntiat; hagiographia, quae aeternae vitae gaudia jubilat. Hic liber in hagiographia locum possidet, quia laudibus aeternae patriae plenius refulgent (Honorius of Autun, Expositio In Psalmos: De mysterio psalmorum. PL 172.273B).

In September infirmity is often accustomed to fall upon men on account of the new produce: and as at this time, when there is accustomed to be a greater abundance of things we also recollect when we also shall die in such an abundance of things and we patiently bear the infirmities of that time. Responsorials from Job and Tobit are sung, who both endured sorrows. They were not kings, for this reason they do not have their own months, but are read together in one month, through which the kingdom of the Assyrians is understood. On Sundays, on which the responsorials from the stories of Judith, Ezra and Esther are sung, and these same stories are read, the kingdom of the Persians and the Medes is designated. The Books of Tobit and Judith are not in the canon among the Hebrews, but since they accept them among their Hagiography, we sing and read from them (Honorius of Autun, Operum Pars Tertia.â Liturgica. Sacramentarium, Seu De Causis Et Significatu Mystico Rituum Divini In Ecclesia Officii Liber. Cap. C.â ? De lectionibus in matutinis post Pentecosten. PL 172.800D. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: In Septembri solet saepe infirmitas accidere hominibus propter novos fructus: et ut eo tempore, quo major abundantia rerum esse solet, nos quandoque etiam in tanta rerum abundantia morituros esse recolamus, et infirmitates temporis illius patienter toleremus, canuntur responsoria de Job et de Tobia, qui ambo dolores pertulerunt. Hi non fuerunt reges, ideo non habent singulos menses, sed in uno mense leguntur, per quod regnum Assyriorum intelligitur. Dominicae, in quibus responsoria de historiis Judith, Esdrae et Esther canuntur, et ipsae historiae leguntur, regnum Persarum et Medorum designatur. Liber Tobiae et Judith non sunt in canone apud Hebraeos, sed quia eos in numero Agiographiae [hort. Agiographia, seu Hagiographia] recepit, cantamus et legimus ex eis (Operum Pars Tertia.â 'Liturgica. Sacramentarium, Seu De Causis Et Significatu Mystico Rituum Divini In Ecclesia Officii Liber. Cap. C.â' ? De lectionibus in matutinis post Pentecosten. PL 172.800D).

Seven deacons are in service to the bishop in the place of the prophets since Scripture is divided seven ways into the New and Old Testament, which minister to the Gospel. The bishop and those joined to him are in the middle after the Gospel, since he is a vicar of Christ, he follows the Gospel. The New Testament is divided into four parts, that is the Acts of the Apostles, the seven canonical Epistles, the fourteen Pauline Epistles, and the Apocalypse; the Old Testament into three parts: law, prophets, and psalms. If there should be five deacons, they would show that five ministers of the books minister to the Gospel. The bishop in the middle, just as the Gospel holds in the New Testament the first order of the preachers of history, the second of the Epistle, the third of prophecy, as is of the Apocalypse. In the Old Testament, one of the law, the other of prophecy. If there should be three, three ministrations of three books, the Gospel, the fountain of all wisdom in the middle, in the New Testament two of the Epistle and of prophecy; in the Old one, that is the law; for among the ancients all Scripture is called law in the New Testament. If there would be one, he would show the one precept of love, as it is said: For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' The ministry of the prophet is to demonstrate the truth of the Gospel from the remembered books, and that he might have before him the wisdom of the subdeacons that they might prophesy at a fitting time and the light of the acolytes, the work of doctors, might finish by expounding books (Honorius of Autun, Operum Pars Tertia.â Liturgica. Sacramentarium, Seu De Causis Et Significatu Mystico Rituum Divini In Ecclesia Officii Liber, cap. xxxiv.â ? De caeremoniis in missa episcopi. PL 172.765A?765B. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Septem diaconi sunt in ministerio episcopi in loco prophetarum, quia Scriptura septempliciter dividitur inter Novum et Vetus Testamentum: quae in Evangelio ministrant. Episcopus et sibi juncti post Evangelium in medio; quia vicarius est Christi, sequitur Evangelium. In Novo Testamento in quatuor, id est actus apostolorum, canonicae Epistolae septem, Epistolae Pauli quatuordecim, Apocalypsis: in Veteri in tria; in legem, in prophetas, in psalmos. Si quinque diaconi fuerint, quinque ministros librorum demonstrant Evangelio ministrare. Episcopus in medio quasi Evangelium habet in Novo Testamento primum ordinem praedicatorum historiae, secundum Epistolae, tertium prophetiae, ut est Apocalypsis: in Veteri unum legis, et alterum prophetiae. Si tres fuerint, tres ministrationes trium librorum; fons omnis sapientiae Evangelium in medio, in Novo Testamento duo Epistolae et prophetiae; in Veteri unum, id est legem; Novo Testamento enim omnis Scriptura apud veteres lex vocatur. Si unus fuerit, unum dilectionis praeceptum ostendit, ut dicitur: Omnis lex in uno sermone impletur, diliges proximum tuum sicut teipsum. Ministerium prophetae est ex memoratis libris evangelicam veritatem approbare, et habeant ante se subdiaconorum sapientiam, ut congruo tempore prophetent: et acolythorum lux doctorum opus expleat exponendo libros (Honorius of Autun, Operum Pars Tertia.â Liturgica. Sacramentarium, Seu De Causis Et Significatu Mystico Rituum Divini In Ecclesia Officii Liber, cap. xxxiv.â ? De caeremoniis in missa episcopi. PL 172.765A-765B).

155 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

156 The Book of Joshua is so called from the name of the author, who is also called Jesus, for Joshua and Jesus are the same name. He is also surnamed from his father Jesus Nave, or Josue Bennum, that is son of Nave or Nun, which are the same. He is also surnamed thus to distinguish him from Jesu the son of Sirach, the great-grandson of Jesu the great priest, who wrote Ecclesiasticus. Note also that according to the Hebrews the second order of the Old Testament begins here. They distinguish the Old Testament into three orders: the first they call the Law, the second, the Prophets and the third the Hagiographies. They place the five books of Moses in the Law, eight in the Prophets, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, and the twelve prophets. In the Hagiographies they put nine books of the Old Testament, which are above. They are called Hagiographies, that is, the writings of holy men, and this name is common to all of the books of Sacred Scripture, and because these nine are no more important than any others they are listed under the common name as their name, just as the word 'confessor' is the general word for all the saints, and yet some of them, according to some special distinction which they have, are listed under other names: some are called 'apostles', others 'martyrs' and so forth (Peter Comestor, Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Josue. Incipit praefatio in historiam libri Josue. PL 198:1259. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Liber Josue a nomine auctoris censetur, qui et Jesus dictus est. Nam Josue et Jesus idem est nomen. Cognominatus est autem a patre Jesus Nave, vel Josue Bennum, id est filius Nave, vel Nun; quod idem est. Cognominatus est autem sic, ad differentiam Jesu fili Sirach pronepotis Jesu magni sacerdotis, qui scripsit Ecclesiasticum. Et nota quod secundum Hebraeos hic incipit secundus ordo Veteris Testamenti. Qui distinguunt Vetus Testamentum in tres ordines. Primum vocant legem, secundum prophetas, tertium agiographa. In lege ponunt quinque libros Moysi; in prophetis octo Josue, Judicum, Samuel, Malachim, Isaiam, Jeremiam, Ezechielem, duodecim prophetas. In agiographis ponunt novem libros Veteris Testamenti, qui supersunt. Hi dicuntur agiographia, id est sanctorum scripta; quod nomen commune est omnibus sacrae Scripturae libris. Et quia hi novem non habuerunt eminentiam prae caeteris, secundum quam agnominarentur, communi nominecontenti sunt, sicut hoc nomen, confessor, generale est omnium sanctorum: et tamen quidam illorum, secundum eminentiam aliquam quam habent, aliis nominibus censentur, dicuntur alii apostoli, alii martyres, et hujusmodi (Peter Comestor, Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Josue. Incipit praefatio in historiam libri Josue. PL 198:1259).

The Jews relegate this story (Tobit) to the Apocrypha, but Jerome says in his Prologue that it should be in the Hagiographies, and at any rate, if it were there it would be in the third order of the Canon of the Old Testament, but because it is not in any order, we would say that that is because Jerome accepts many things as hagiographies, to the point that he also includes Apocrypha, and that is because Hebrew words are close to the language of the Chaldaeans. Jerome was fluent in both languages, so whatever somebody would say in Hebrew words, he would explain in Latin, making short work of it, almost [the work of] a day (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Tobiae. Incipit praefatio in historiam libri Josue. PL 198:1432. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Hanc historiam Judaei inter apocrypha ponunt Hieronymus tamen in Prologo suo dicit inter agiographa, quod si esset, tamen esset in tertio ordine canonis Veteris Testamenti; sed, quia de nullo ordine est, dicemus quia Hieronymus diffusius accepit agiographa, ut includeret etiam apocrypha, et quia vicina est lingua Chaldaeorum Hebraico sermoni, utriusque linguae peritum loquacem habens Hieronymus, quidquid ille Hebraeis verbis expressit, Latino sermone exposuit, sub brevi et quasi unius diei labore (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Tobiae. PL 198:1432).

Daniel prophesied in Chaldaea, who was of the line of the Kings of Judah, according to Josephus and Epiphanius. According to the Seventy [Septuagint], however, he was of the Tribe of Levi, who put this in the title of the fable of Bel: 'There was a man, a priest, named Daniel, the son of Abdo, the companion of the King of Babylon; he was born in Upper Beteroth. And he was so chaste that it seemed to his fellow tribesmen that it was because of a sword.' Jerome translated this book with great difficulty at the request of Paula and Eustochium. It was written in the Chaldaean language, but in Hebrew letters, nor was it read by the Church according to the Septuagint, whose edition is very inaccurate, but according to [the edition of] Theodotius. Among the Hebrews, it does not have the story of Susannah, nor the Hymn of the three boys, nor the story of Bel the dragon (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Danielis. Cap. I. PL 198:1447-1448. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Prophetavit etiam in Chaldaea Daniel, qui secundum Josephum et Epiphanium, de semine regio Judae fuit; secundum LXX vero de tribu Levi, qui in titulo fabulae Belis ita ponunt: Homo quidam erat sacerdos, nomine Daniel, filius Abdo, conviva regis Babylonis; natus fuit in Beteroth superiore. Et fuit adeo castus, quod a contribulibus suis spado putaretur. Librum ejus transtulit Hieronymus ad petitionem Paulae et Eustochii cum magna difficultate. Scriptus enim erat Hebraicis litteris, sed Chaldaico sermone, nec legebatur ab Ecclesia secundum LXX, quia multum a veritate discordabat eorum editio, sed secundum Theodotionem, qui apud Hebraeos, nec Suzannae habet historiam, nec hymnum trium puerorum, nec Belis draconisque fabulam (Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Danielis. Cap. I. PL 198:1447-1448).

The story of Susannah follows, which the Hebrew does not have in the Book of Daniel. And he calls it a fable, not that the story itself is corrupt, but the part in it about the stoning of the two priests is false, whom Jerome says were burnt, and because we claim it was written by Daniel, when it was written by some Greek-speaker, which is evident from some word-play and from the names of trees, that is: apotou, cymi, cyse, apotoy, primi, prise, for such word-play and names of trees are not found in Hebrew (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Danielis, Cap. XIII, De Sussana, PL 198:1466. Translation by Catherine Kavanaugh, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Sequitur historia Susannae, quam Hebraeus non habet in libro Danielis. Et vocat eam fabulam, non quod inficietur rem gestam, sed quod in ea falsum legitur de sacerdotibus lapidatis, quos Jeremias adustos testatur. Et quia fabulamur eam scriptam a Daniele, cum a quodam Graeco scripta fuerit: quod probatur ex eo quod quaedam allusio verborum facta sit ibi nominibus arborum, videlicet apotoy, cymi, cyse, apotoy, primi, prise. Tales enim allusiones verborum, et arborum nomina, non inveniuntur in Hebraeo (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Historia Scholastica, Historia Libri Danielis, Cap. XIII, De Sussana, PL 198:1466).

157 It ought to be seen whether those who do not yield to such worldly masters at least are satisfied with Christ, the prophets, or the apostles. I say this since reports have made it known that you trust not in Christ or the prophets or the apostles, and if this is yet true, they have disclosed that you detract from the very majesty of the Old and New Testament, which already from antiquity have ruled the entire world. But since I might not easily assent to the lying demonstration of rumors, I strongly do not wish to blame you for things uncertain when certain people swear you have cast away the divine canon and others contend you have taken up certain things from it. But I necessarily am satisfied by reliable authorities that you have taken up the entire canon which is assumed by the Church (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Adversus Petrobrusianos, Probatio totius Novi Testamenti ex Evangelio. PL 189:730D. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Videndum est, utrum hi, qui tantis orbis terrarum magistris non cedunt, saltem Christo, prophetis, vel apostolis acquiescant. Hoc ideo dico, quoniam nec ipsi Christo, vel prophetis, aut apostolis, vos ex toto credere fama vulgavit, ipsique majestati Veteris ac Novi Testamenti, quae jam ab antiquo totum orbem subdidit, vos detrahere, si tamen verum est, indicavit. Sed, quia fallaci rumorum monstro non facile assensum praebere debeo, maxime cum quidam vos totum divinum Canonem abjecisse affirment, alii quaedam ex ipso vos suscepisse contendant, culpare vos de incertis nolo, sed necessario totum Canonem, qui ab Ecclesia suscipitur, vos suscipere debere certis auctoritatibus probo (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Adversus Petrobrusianos, Probatio totius Novi Testamenti ex Evangelio. PL 189:730D).

For the Gospel gives testimony to the Old Testament and in addition it confirms by its authority the things it preaches. Did not Christ in the Gospel affirm the authority of the Old Testament with his own authority when appearing to all the disciples after the resurrection he said: Was it fitting that all things written in the law of Moses and the prophets and psalms be fulfilled in me? Did he not confirm this same thing with an unbreakable bond when he revealed the meaning to his disciples, that they might understand the scriptures. Did he not confirm this when he spoke to the two disciples walking to Emmaus: Oh how foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have declared. What more do you demand? Is so much and such clear authority insufficient by which Christ offers testimony to the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, not confusedly but clearly when he teaches that it was fitting that the writings about him, first of the law, then of the prophets, finally of the psalms, were fulfilled in him. But I have reported above, although it is fully sufficient in order that the authority of old scripture be confirmed, I nevertheless offer from this same Gospel in which you trust, as much as you please ornamentedly and superabundantly evidence attesting to the divine books, which having been heard, you would not only believe them divine, but you would be ashamed to have doubted in anything concerning them.
And that I might begin from the head of these holy books, reflect, if you do not remember, the Book of Genesis... Exodus... Come from there to Leviticus thence to the Book of Numbers. Come to the last book of the Pentateuch, that is the Mosaic law. Do you yet see that these books are not to be rejected, which Christ approves; that they are not lying or apocryphal, concerning which Truth bears testimony; they are not to be cast aside concerning which the Eternal Word himself, the very wisdom of God makes his own words certain. Other divine and prophetic books follow these, the first of which is called Joshua, to which its neighbor Deuteronomy which itself earns authority from the Gospel, gives authority. The Book of Judges follows which the following and preceding (concerning which we have already written) books make canonical and which was already proven to be canonical by written testimony. Because if the Apostle is consulted, to whose word necessity itself compels you to give complete faith, as was proved above, you will hear him in the Letter to the Hebrews among the other fathers, preaching the trustworthiness of those Judges and giving canonical authority to that same book when he says: For time has failed me speaking of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah who certainly ruled the Jews before the kings, ruled the Jews not with the name of kings but of judges.
Then the small, but confirmed by the Gospel itself, book of Ruth follows, just as is read in the genealogy of the Savior... Boaz, it says, bore Obed from Ruth. Who, although a gentile, how she was joined to a Jewish husband, that book explains, which, as was said, earns its canonical authority from the Gospel. Then the pen hastens to the Books of Samuel and Kings and equally to believers and unbelievers it shows that they are supported not only by prophetic, but also by Gospel authority. Behold, truth bore all these things forth from the Book of Kings and showed that they therefore are true. Then the discourse turns to the prophets and the Gospel itself bears testimony first to Isaiah, prophet of the Gospel. Jeremiah follows about which prophet the Gospel is not silent that his words be taken as prophetic... The apostolic words of Paul make Ezekiel canonical, who in his second letter to the Corinthians from this same prophet brought in God saying... The oft-cited authority of the Gospel compels you to accept Daniel among the prophets and to deny that his writings are prophetic: when Christ says in the Gospel, so when you see the desolating sacrilege spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand). After these great, and, as it were, chief prophets, let's proceed at once to the twelve who are called minor, not by lesser authority, but by the quantity of their writing and let's prove them all canonical, not at once or confusedly, but individually and distinctly: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zaphaniah, Haggah, Zacariah... Last in the order of the prophets, but not least in authority follows Malachi. Then to Job... already the authority of the psalms... and concerning the books of Solomon (that is Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle, that is the Song of Songs) to that book which in Hebrew is Dabrehaiamin, in Greek is Paralipom (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Adversus Petrobrusianos, Probatio totius Veteris Testamenti ex Evangelio. PL 189:741A. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Evangelium enim toti Veteri Instrumento testimonium dat, et ejus insuper auctoritatibus ea ipsa, quae praedicat, confirmat. Nonne Christus in Evangelio auctoritatem Veteris Testamenti sua auctoritate firmavit, quando post resurrectionem discipulis omnibus apparens dixit: Oportebat impleri omnia quae scripta sunt in lege Moysi, et prophetis et psalmis de me? Nonne eamdem indissolubili vinculo confirmavit, quando eisdem discipulis suis aperuit sensum, ut intelligerent Scripturas? Nonne eamdem confirmavit, quando duobus discipulis in Emmaus euntibus dixit: O stulti et tardi corde ad credendum in omnibus quae locuti sunt prophetae! Et quid ultra exigetis? An non sufficit vobis tanta tamque clara auctoritas qua Christus legi Moysi, qua prophetis, qua psalmis, non confuse, sed distincte testimonium perhibuit, quando primo legis, deinde prophetarum, ad ultimum psalmorum scripta de se, et in se impleri oportuisse docuit? Sed licet, quod praemisi, ad Veteris Scripturae auctoritatem confirmandam plene sufficiat, profero tamen de eodem, cui creditis, Evangelio, quamvis ex superabundanti sigillatim testimonia divinis libris attestantia, quibus auditis non solum eos divinos credatis, sed insuper vos de ipsis vel in aliquo dubitasse erubescatis.
Et, ut a capite eorumdem sacrorum librorum incipiam, recolite si non meministis, libro Geneseos...Exodum...Venite dehinc et ad Leviticum...Inde ad librum Numeri...Accedite et ad ultimum Pentateuchi, hoc est legis Mosaicae librum, qui Deuteronomium, id est secunda lex...Videtis adhuc non esse repudiandos libros, quos sic Christus approbat; non esse mendaces vel apocryphos, de quibus Veritas testimonium profert; non esse abjiciendos, de quibus verba sua ipsum Verbum aeternum, ipsa Dei Sapientia communit? Sequantur post hos et alii divini et prophetici libri, quorum primus est ille qui dicitur Jesu Nave, cui auctoritatem dat ipsum et proximum quod ab Evangelio auctoritatem meruit, Deuteronomium...Sequitur hunc Judicum liber, quem canonicum facit proximus, et praecedens eum, de quo egimus, liber, qui supra scriptis testimoniis jam de Canone esse probatus est...Quod si et Apostolus consulatur, cujus verbis omnibus vos fidem integram dare, sicut supra probatum est, necessitas ipsa compellit, audietis eum in Epistola ad Hebraeos inter alios Patres, fidem Judicum istorum praedicantem, et eidem libro auctoritatem canonicam dantem, cum dicit: Et quid adhuc dicam? Deficiet enim me tempus enarrantem de Gedeon, Barach, Samson, Jephte, qui certe, antequam reges Judaeis praeessent, eisdem Judaeis non regum, sed judicum nomine praefuerunt. Dehinc parvus, sed ab ipso Evangelio confirmatus liber Ruth sequitur, sicut in genealogia legitur Salvatoris...Booz inquit, genuit Obeth ex Ruth. Quae cum alienigena esset, qualiter viro Judaeo juncta sit, liber tantum ille exponit, qui, sicut dictum est, canonicam auctoritatem ab Evangelio meruit. Hinc ad Samuelis et Regum libros stylus festinet, et credentibus pariter atque incredulis, eos non tantum prophetica, sed et evangelica auctoritate firmissime subnixos esse demonstret...Ecce ista omnia de libris Regum veritas protulit, et idcirco eos veraces esse ostendit. Currat inde sermo ad prophetas, ac primo evangelico prophetae Isaiae ipsum Evangelium testimonium ferat...Sequitur Jeremias, quem vere prophetam et cujus verba ut prophetica suscipienda esse Evangelium non tacet...Ezechielem etiam canonicum apostolica Pauli verba faciunt, qui in Epistola secunda ad Corinthios ex eodem propheta introducit Deum loquentem...Danielem quoque inter prophetas vos suscipere, ejusque scripta esse prophetica negare, eadem vos et saepe nominata evangelica auctoritas cogit: Cum, inquit Christus in Evangelio, videritis abominationem desolationis quae dicta est a Daniele propheta, stantem in loco sancto, qui legit, intelligat)...Post hos magnos et velut principales prophetas, procedamus simul et ad XII qui minores dicuntur, non inferiori auctoritate, sed librorum quantitate, et universos non simul, neque confuse, sed sigillatim et distincte canonicos esse probemus... Osee... Joel... Amos... Abdia... Jona... Michaeae... Nahum... Habacuc... Sophonia.... Aggaeo... Zachariam... Ultimus in ordine duodecim prophetarum sed auctoritate non inferior, Malachias sequitur...
Hinc ad Job...Jam vero psalmorum auctoritatem...Et de libris Salomonis (Libris vero ejus, hoc est Proverbiis, Ecclesiasti, Carminibus, id est Canticis canticorum)...Libro quoque illi, qui Hebraice Dabrehaiamin, Graece Paralipomenon...Esdrae etiam volumen...Ultimus in agiographis, hoc est sanctae Scripturae libris, sequitur liber Esther, cui auctoritatem aliorum agiographorum auctoritas confert. Si enim illi ab Hebraica veritate originem trahentes hunc socium, et paris auctoritatis in eodem Hebraico Canone habuerunt, sequitur, quia nullo eorum librorum excepto, omnes pari modo suscipi debuerunt. Sed non solum Christianis, sed et ipsis Judaicis litteris attestantibus, omnes juxta suprascriptum ordinem libri, a libro Job usque ad hunc, de quo agitur, librum Esther, eo scilicet non excluso, sed addito, paris auctoritatis sunt.
Igitur absque distinctione aliqua, omnes aequaliter suscipi debuerunt. Quod quia ita est, cum Christus, apostoli et prophetae auctoritatem praecedentibus, et huic libro paribus libris suis testimoniis dederint, indubia ratione cogente, huic quoque libro dignitatem similem contulerunt. Restant post hos authenticos sanctae Scripturae libros, sex non reticendi libri Sapientiae, Jesu filii Sirach, Tobiae, Judith, et uterque Machabaeorum liber. Qui etsi ad illam sublimem praecedentium dignitatem pervenire non potuerunt, propter laudabilem tamen et pernecessariam doctrinam, ab Ecclesia suscipi meruerunt. Super quibus vobis commendandis, me laborare opus non est. Nam si Ecclesia alicujus pretii apud vos est, ejus auctoritate aliquid, saltem parum quid, a vobis suscipiendum est. Quod si (sicut Judaeis de Moyse Christus dixit) ejus Ecclesiae non creditis, quomodo verbis meis credetis? Ecce qui non nisi soli Evangelio vos credere dicebatis, jam rogo ut non nisi soli Evangelio credatis. Nam sicut in primis dixi: Si soli Evangelio creditis, necessario toti huic quod auditis, Veteri Instrumento credetis. Fert enim Evangelium omnibus, quos supradixi, testimonium, eisque auctoritatem canonicam dat, cum sermones suos eorum sermonibus confirmat (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Adversus Petrobrusianos, Probatio totius Veteris Testamenti ex Evangelio. PL 189:741A).
Succedat tamen sacrorum librorum auctoritas, et tam Canonis divini quam aliorum voluminum ei cohaerentium et ab Ecclesia traditorum clarifluus sonus, et erroris tenebras luce sua discutiat, et surdis hominibus aures hactenus obturatas aperiat (Peter Mauritius (Venerabilis), Adversus Petrobrusianos, Probatio totius Veteris Testamenti ex Evangelio. PL 189:829)

158 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

159 As regards the images that are in the Sacred Scripture, they ought to be understood in an allegorical sense. The dignity of Sacred Scripture is in this: that it has not only signifying words, but also signifying things, above all other ancient writings, whence also they are subservient to all the arts which are called 'liberal.' These books, then, about which we are talking, and which are drawn from Scripture, belong partly to the Old Testament and partly to the New. Indeed the Old Testament is divided into three orders: the Law, of which there are five books, the Prophets, of which there are eight books, and the Hagiographies of which there are nine books, altogether this makes twenty-two, which is also the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, so that by as many books as just men of holy life are exerted to wisdom by as many letters they are instructed in eloquence from an early age. So these four, that is the matter of sacred Scripture, intelligence [understanding], dignity and the number of its books signify those four steps, (which we placed on the table which means Scripture of which we spoke, two leading from this source to that place). If you want to know more about these, read the first part of the book of Master Hugh, which is entitled De sacramentis [On the Sacraments] (Adam Scotus, De Tripartito Tabernaculo, Pars Secunda. De Tabernaculo Christi Quod Est In Fide. Caput VIII. PL 198:697B. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: De picturis quae in Sancta sunt, quomodo secundum sensum allegoricum debeant intelligi. Dignitas quoque sanctae Scripturae in hoc est, quod prae cunctis saecularibus scripturis non solum voces, sed etiam res significativas habet; unde et ei omnes artes, quas liberales appellant, subserviunt. Libri autem, de quibus hic loquimur, et qui de Scriptura tractant, partim ad Vetus Testamentum pertinent, partim ad Novum. Et Vetus quidem in tres ordines dividitur: in legem, cujus libri quinque sunt; in prophetas, quorum libri sunt octo: in hagiographa, ad quos libri novem pertinent: qui simul juncti viginti duos efficiunt, quot etiam elementa in Hebraico alphabeto sunt; ut tot libris sancta viri justi vita exerceatur ad sapientiam, quot litteris aetas tenera instruitur ad eloquentiam. Haec itaque quatuor, scilicet materiam sacrae Scripturae, intelligentiam, dignitatem, et numerum librorum ejus illi quatuor gradus innuunt, quos ad mensam, quae hanc, de qua loquimur, Scripturam designat, posuimus, duos hinc inde ad utrumque ejus caput. Si autem prolixius de his scire volueris, lege primam partem libri Magistri Hugonis, cujus est titulus de Sacramentis (Adam Scotus, De Tripartito Tabernaculo, Pars Secunda. De Tabernaculo Christi Quod Est In Fide. Caput VIII. PL 198:697B).

160 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

161 Joshua Bennum was named from his father, that is Son of Num or Son of Nave, or, fully, Jesus Son of Nave. You call him by his surname in order to distinguish him from Jesus Son of Sirach, great?grandson of Jesus the high priest under whom and the leader Zorobabel the people returned from captivity, as is read in Haggai 1 and Zechariah 3. Jesus Son of Sirach wrote Ecclesiasticus, as has been said. It should be known, according to the Hebrews the second subsection of the Old Testament begins here, for the Hebrews divide the Old Testament into subsections. The first they call the Law; the second the Prophets; the third the Hagiography. In the Law they place the five books of Moses. In the Prophets they place eight books, namely Joshua, Judges, Samuel, that is the first two books of Kings, Malachi, that is the last two books of Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, the Twelve Prophets. In Hagiography they place the nine books of the Old Testament which remain, namely job, David, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Daniel, the Canticle, Chronicles, Ezra, Esther. They are called Hagiography, that is the writings of saints, which is a name common to all the books of Holy Scripture. But since these nine books do not have any preeminent feature over the others, according to which they might be named, they are contained under a common name, just as the name confessor is common to all saints. But some are ordered according to some prominence through other names: for some are called Apostles, others Prophets, others Patriarchs, others Martyrs, others Virgins. Those who have no prominent feature are called Confessors. In this way the last order of Angels is called by the name common to all, that is Angels. According to the Greeks, Origen places seven books in the first subsection, adding Joshua and Judges to the Pentateuch. He calls this subsection the Heptateuch, from hepta, which is seven and teuchos, which is book. Whatever the order of this book, the truth of the history is not changed. Know the lines of all the books of the Old Testament. Five books of Moses; Joshua, Judges, Samuel; Malachi, three distinguished and twice six prophets: the Hebrew considers these to excel the remaining books. He calls the five the law and the remaining ones the prophets. Afterwards, the Hagiography are Daniel, David, Esther and Ezra, Job, Chronicles, and three books of Solomon. The entire old law is completely contained by these books. The Apocrypha remain: Jesus, Wisdom, Pastor; and the Books of the Maccabees, Judith and Tobit. Since these are doubtful they are not numbered in the canon. But since they proclaim true things, the Church accepts them (Hugh of St. Cher, In Postillam super Librum Iosue: Prologus. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Cognominatus autem est a patre Iosue Bennum, idest fili Num, vel filius Naue, vel Iesus Naue supple filius. Et cognominas, sic ad differentiam, Iesu filii Syrach, pronepotis Iesu, sacerdotis magni, sub quo, & Zorobabel Duce rediit populus de captiuitate, ut legitur Aggei I. & Zach. 3. Iesus aut filius Syrach, scripsit Eccelsiasticum, ut dicitur. Et notandum, secundum Hebraeos incipit hic secundus ordo veteris testamenti. Distinguunt enim Hebrei vetus testamentum in tres ordines. Primum vocant legem: Secundum, prophetas: Tertium, Agiographa. In lege ponunt quinque libros Moysi. In prophetis ponunt octo libros. scilicet Iosue, Iudicum, Samuel id est duos primos Libros Regum Malachim, idest duos ultimos Regum: Esaiam, Hieremiam, Ezechielem, Duodecim prophetas. In Agiographis, ponunt nouem libros, qui supersunt vereris testamenti, scilicet Iob, Dauid, Prouerbia, Ecclesiastem, Daniele, Cantica, Paralipomenon, Esdram, Hester. Hi dicuntur Agiographa id est sanctorum scripta, quod est nomen comune omnibus libris Sacrae Scripturae. Sed quia hi nouem libri, non habuerunt aliquam praeeminetiam prae caeteris, secundum quam agnominarentur, communi nomine sunt contenti. Sicut hoc nomen confessor, commune est sanctis omnibus. Sed aliqui secundum aliquam eminentiam, quam habent, aliis censentur nominibus: Nam alii Apostoli, alii Prophete, alii Patriarche, alii Martyres, alii Virgines dicuntur: Qui autem nullam habent eminentiam, dicuntur confessores. In hunc modem ultimus ordo Angelorum, nomine communi omnium, idest Angeli nuncupantur. Origenes vero secundum Graecos, ponit in primo ordine septem libros, addens Pentateucho Iosue, & Iudicum: Et vocat illum ordinem Heptatichum, ab Hepta, quod est septem & teuchos, quod est volumen. In quocunque vero ordine sit liber hic, historiae veritas non mutatur. Nota versus de omnibus libris veteris testamenti. Quinque libros Moysi: Iosue, Iudicum, Samuelem: Et Malachim, tres praecipuos, bis sexque prophetas: Hebraeus reliquis, censet praecellere libris. Quinque vocat legem, reliquos vult esse prophetas. Post Agriographa sunt Daniel, Dauid, Hester & Esdras. Iob, Paralipomenon & tres libri Salamonis. Lex vetus his libris, perfecte tota tenetur. Restant Apocrypha: Iesus, Sapientia, Pastor: Et Machabeorum Libri, Iudith atque Tobias. Hi quia sunt dubii, sub canone non numerantur. Sed quia vera canunt, ecclesia suscipit illos (Reverendissimi In Christo Patris, Domini Ugonis etc., Cardinalis, In Postillam super Librum Iosue: Prologus).

162 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

163 It follows on the pages, 'The Hebrew books say that Solomon was dragged five times through the streets of the city as punishment. And so they say he came to the temple he had built with his own hands with five branches and he gave them to the scribes that he might be beaten with them. They, on common accepted wisdom, said that they would not lay a hand on the annointed of the Lord. He then, frustrated by them, removed himself from the kingship. This is what is on the pages. Indeed, Jerome translated from Hebrew into Latin all the scriptures which were kept amongst the Hebrews in the canon. In them one cannot find that Solomon offered branches to the scribes that he might be beaten. But their remaining scriptures are apocrypha whose authority is not suitable to confirm those things that might come into dispute. Whence also the book of Jesus son of Sirach and Judith and Tobias and first Maccabees are counted by them amongst the apocrypha since they are not held in their canon. If they say they have any other books that they claim contain the punishment of Solomon, it is not to be believed of these books, since from the mouths of these same Jews such testimony is offered that whatever is not in the canon is in no way worthy of faith. Josephus, the author of Jewish antiquity, claims he read such a thing and he did not learn it from scripture, canonical or apocryphal, that Solomon repented. Whence clearly it is concluded that it is not foreign to the Jews to lie; but proper and customary for them either to deny what is true or affirm what is false. On account of which Jerome was urged by Sophronius to translate the psalms according to the Hebrew truth since when Sophronius would argue with a certain Jew and would offer sure evidence against him from the psalms according to the Septuagint, the Jew, babbling and mocking him as ignorant of Hebrew things throughout nearly every word, would say that in Hebrew what was contained was not contained or what was not contained was contained.
It follows on the pages: the words of Solomon writing Ecclesiasticus after he has suddenly lost the kingdom: Solomon reigned in days of peace, and God gave him rest on every side, that he might build a house for his name and other things which follow in the same chapter. Solomon did not write Ecclesiasticus as Augustine in the tenth book of the City of God and, before Augustine, Jerome says in many places. Indeed Jerome found this Hebrew book, as he says, called in Hebrew not Ecclesiasticus as amongst the Latins, but Parabola. To which there were joined two others, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs, so that he could compare the similarity of their writers, of Solomon, not only by the number of books, but by the nature of the material. On account of this similarity of speech, the custom arose among the unlearned that Ecclesiasticus was said to be Solomon's and those who are wiser say it was Jesus, son of Sirach who, as was said above, lived in the time of the High Priest Simon (Philip of Harvengt, Responsio De Damnatione Salamonis. PL 203:659. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Sequitur in foliolis: Aiunt libri Hebraei Salomonem quinquies tractum fuisse per plateas civitatis, poenitentiae causa. Item aiunt eum venisse in templum quod aedificaverat cum quinque virgis, et dedit eas legisperitis ut verberaretur ab illis. Qui communi accepto consilio dixerunt, quod in unctum Domini non mitterent manum. Inde frustratus ab illis, a se ipso est depositus de regno. Haec in foliolis. Omnes quidem Scripturas quae apud Hebraeos in canone continentur, Hieronymus de Hebraeo transtulit in Latinum, in quibus non est invenire quod Salomon poenitentiae causa per plateas civitatis tractus fuerit vel legisperitis virgas ad se verberandum praebuerit. Reliquae autem Scripturae quae apud illos sunt, apocryphae sunt, quarum auctoritas non est idonea ad ea quae in contentionem venerint roboranda. Unde et Jesu filii Syrac liber, et Judith, et Tobiae, et primus Machabaeorum qui apud illos sunt, quia in canone eorum non habentur ab ipsis inter apocrypha computantur. Si quos autem alios libros dicunt se habere quos poenitentiam Salomonis asserant continere, non est his libris credendum, cum ex ipsorum ore Judaeorum tale testimonium proferatur, ut quidquid non est in canone, dignum fide nequaquam habeatur. Denique Josephus Judaicae scriptor antiquitatis tale asserit se legisse, nec didicit ex Scriptura, sive canonica, sive apocrypha Salomonem poenituisse. Unde manifeste colligitur quia non est a Judaeis alienum mentiri; sed peculiare satis, et domesticum est eis vel negare quod verum est, vel affirmare quod falsum est. Propter quod et Hieronymus a Sophronio compulsus est psalmos Davidicos juxta Hebraicam transferre veritatem, quia videlicet cum Sophronius cum quodam Hebraeo disputaret, et quaedam adversus eum testimonia de psalmis juxta Septuaginta interpretes proferret: Hebraeus garriens et illudens illi Hebraicas litteras nescienti per singula pene verba, dicebat in Hebraico vel non haberi quod habebatur, vel haberi quod non habebatur.
Sequitur in foliolis: Verba Salomonis postquam sponte amiserat regnum scribentis Ecclesiasticum (cap. XLVII): Salomon imperavit in diebus pacis cui subjecit Deus omnes hostes ut conderet domum in nomine ipsius, et caetera quae in eodem capitulo subsequuntur. Ecclesiasticum Salomon non scripsit sicut Augustinus in decimo septimo libro De civitate Dei et ante Augustinum multis in locis Hieronymus dixit. Hunc quidem librum Hieronymus, ut ait, Hebraicum reperit, non Ecclesiasticum ut apud Latinos sed Parabolas praenotatum. Cui, ut ait, juncti erant duo alii, Ecclesiastes et Cantica canticorum, ut scriptorum eorum similitudinem, Salomonis, non solum librorum numero sed et materiarum genere coaequaret. Propter hanc itaque eloquii similitudinem, ut Salomonis Ecclesiasticus diceretur, apud imperitos consuetudo obtinuit, sed antiquiores, et sapientiores dicunt eum esse Jesus filii Syrac, qui sicut longe superius dictum est, tempore Simonis summi pontificis fuit (Philip of Harvengt, Responsio De Damnatione Salamonis. PL 203:659).

164 Vita Benedicti XII prima, edited by Baluge in Vitae Paparum Avenionensium I (1693), col. 207: '... master in theologia profundissimus qui totam Bibliam profundissime et subtilissime postillavit.'

165 Margaret Deanesly, A History of the Medieval Church, 590 to 1500 (London: Metheun, 1983), p. 166.

166 H. Rost, Die Bibel im Mittelalter, Augsburg: Seitz, 1939, p. 87: 'Von größtem Einfluß das ganze Mittelalter hindurch bis weit in die Reformationszeit herein ist auf diesem Gebiete der berühmte Franziskaner Nikolaus von Lyra gewesen.'

167 Michael Woodward, Nicholas of Lyra on Beatific Vision, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Notre Dame in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Medieval Institute, Notre Dame, Indiana, April, 1992.

168 Here begins the commentary of Nicholas of Lyra on the Book of Tobit, and first the preface to the book. 'It is right to do these things and not to omit those,' Mt 23. After I have, with God's help, written on the canonical books of Holy Scripture, starting from the beginning of Genesis and proceeding to the end of Revelation, I intend, trusting again in God's help, to write on the other books that are not of the canon, namely the Book of Wisdom, Sirach, Judith, Tobit, and the Books of Maccabees, following what Jerome says in the Helmeted Prologue, which is placed before the Books of Kings; and he says the same thing about the Book of Baruch in his prologue and about Second Ezra in his prologue on Ezra. This is why I chose the verse above, in which we may observe two points: first is the necessity of the work, where it begins: 'It is right to do these things;' second is the utility of the work, where it continues: 'and not to omit those.' As to the first point, it should be known that the books of Holy Scripture called canonical are of such authority that whatever is contained in them is held to be true, firmly and without discussion, as well as whatever is clearly demonstrated from it. For just as in philosophical writings, where truth is known by returning to first principles, known in themselves, so too the truth is known in the writings handed down by Catholic teachers, in regards to things that must be held by faith, by returning to the canonical writings of Holy Scripture, which were delivered by divine revelation, in which nothing false can exist. Therefore an understanding of them is necessary for the Church, and concerning their interpretation the words of Sirach 23 may be cited: 'All these things are the book of life,' i.e. all the books interpreted in the preceding work are contained in the book of life, i.e. in the book of truth revealed by God, who is life itself. For just as divine predestination is called the book of life, so too are these writings revealed from heaven called the book of life, both because they proceed essentially from life, as was said, and because they lead to a blessed life. As to the second point, it should be considered that the books that are not part of the canon are received by the Church so that they may be read in her for the instruction of morals, yet their authority is not judged adequate for proving things that come into contention, as Jerome says in his prologue to the Book of Judith and in his prologue to the Proverbs of Solomon. They are, then, of less efficacy than the canonical books. Thus we can say with the Lord, from whom is all good, what is written in Judith 6: 'I have thought these after those.' While in the divine act of thinking there is not before and after, since he is singular and most simple, yet in the effects thought by him beforehand there is an order of time and dignity; and so the truth written in the canonical books is prior, in time to many things and prior in dignity to all things, than the truth that is written in the non-canonical books. It is useful, nevertheless, for direction in the life of morals, as was said, whereby we come to the kingdom of heaven, which, may you grant us, etc. (Postilla Nicolai de Lyra super librum Tobiae, prefatio. Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyrae litterali et morali (Basel:Petri & Froben, 1498). British Museum IB.37895, Vol. 2). Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward).
Latin Reference: Incipit postilla Nicolai de Lyra super librum Tobie, et primo eiusdem prefatio. Hec oportuit facere et illa non omittere, Matth. xxiii. Postquam (auxiliante Deo) scripsi super libros sacre scripture canonicos, incipiendo a principio Genesis et procedendo usque ad finem Apocalypsis, de eiusdem confisus auxilio super alios intendo scribere, qui non sunt de canone, scilicet liber Sapientie, Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobias, et libri Machabeorum, secundum quod Hieronymus dicit in prologo galeato, qui premittitur libris Regum; et idem dicit de libro Baruch in eius prologo, et de secundo Esdre in prologo super Esdram. Propter quod assumpsi verbum propositum: Hec oportuit, etc., in quo duo possunt notari: primum est necessitas operis: precedentur ibi: hec oportuit facere; secundum est utilitas operis: subsequentur ibi: et illa non omittere. Circa primum sciendum quod libri sacre scripture qui canonici nuncapantur tante sunt auctoritatis quod quicquid ibi continetur verum tenetur firmiter et indiscusse, et per consequens illud quod ex hoc concluditur manifeste. Nam sicut in scripturis philosophicis veritas cognoscitur per reductionem ad prima principia per se nota, sic in scripturis a catholics doctoribus traditis veritas cognoscitur, quantum ad ea que sunt fide tenenda, per reductionem ad scripturas sacre scripture canonicas, que sunt habite revelatione divina, cui nullo modo falsum potest subesse. Propter quod intellectus earum necessaries est ecclesie, et ideo de expositione earum potest dici illud quod scribitur Eccli. xxiiii: Hec omnia liber vite, id est, omnes libri expositi in opere precedenti continentur in libro vite, id est, in libro revelate veritatis a Deo qui est ispa vita. Sicut enim divina predestinatio dicitur liber vite, sic est hec scriptura divinitus revelata liber vite dicitur, tum quia a vita per essentiam procedit, ut dictum est, cum quia ad vitam beatam perducit. Circa secundum considerandum quod libri qui non sunt de canone recepti sunt ab ecclesia ut ad morum informationem in ea legantur, tamen eorum auctoritas ad probandum ea que in contentionem veniunt minus idonea reputantur, ut dicit Hieronymus in prologo super librum Judith et in prologo super parabolas Salomonis; propter quod sunt minoris efficatie quam libri canonici. Et ideo possumus dicere Domino a quo est omne bonum illud quod scribitur Judith viii: Illa post illa cogitasti. Licet enim in actuo cogitandi divino non sit prius aut posterius cum sit unicus et simplicissimus, tamen in effectibus ab eo precogitatis est ordo temporis et dignitatis; et sic veritas scripta in libris canonicis prior est tempore quantum ad plura, et dignitate quantum ad omnia quam sit illa que scribitur in non canonicis. Utilis tamen est ad directione in via morum, ut dictum est, per quam pervenitur ad regnum celorum, quod nobis concedat, etc. (Postilla Nicolai de Lyra super librum Tobiae, prefatio.Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyrae litterali et morali (Basel:Petri & Froben, 1498). British Museum IB.37895, vol. 2.)

169 Chapter 1: 'In the first year of Cyrus,' etc.. This book, from which begins the rule of priests, as was said, together with the books connected to it, can be divided thus: first is treated the emergence of this rule, second ensuing misfortune, which is twofold: one considers the example of constancy against Aman, the other the example of patience in the books of Esther and Job. But at present I intend to pass over the books of Tobit, Judith, and Maccabees, although they are historical, because they are not of the canon for Jews, nor for Christians. Rather Jerome says about them, in the Helmeted Prologue that is the prologue on the Books of Kings, that they are sung among the apocrypha; and in the prologue on Judith he says that their authority is not efficacious for proving anything that comes into contention or doubt. And therefore I do not intend to pursue the exposition of them until, with God's help and continued life, I have written on all the canonical books. Now if the Lord grants me life, I will be able, God willing, to write on these books and others that are commonly placed in Bibles, although they are not of the canon. This book, moreover, is divided into three parts: first concerning the leading back of the people under Jesu son of Josedech; second concerning the instruction of the returnees by Ezra, teacher of the law - Chapter 7; third concerning the rebuilding of the walls by the leader Nehemiah - beginning with 'The words of Nehemiah.' And these three were priests, as will appear from what follows. But at present I do not intend to busy myself with the Second Book of Ezra for the reason given, namely that it is not of the canon (Postilla Nicolai de Lyra super librum Edsrae, cap.i, Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali (Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498). British Museum IB.37895, vol. 1, Lyra on Ezra. Translation by Dr. Michael Woodward).
Latin Reference: Capitulum I: In anno primo Cyri, etc.. Liber iste, a quo incipit regimen sacerdotum, ut dictum est, cum sibi annexis potest sic dividi: quia primo tangitur huius regiminis processus, secundo incidens casus, qui est duplex. In uno habetur exemplum constantie contra Aman, in altero exemplum patientie in libris Hester et Iob. Libros autem Tobie et Iudith et Machabeorum, licet sint historiales, tamen intendo eos ad presens pertransire, quia non sunt de canone apud Iudeos nec apud Christianos. Immo de ipsis dicit Hieronymus, in prologo galeoto qui est prologus super libros Regnum, quod inter apocrypha cantantur; et in prologo Iudith dicit quod auctoritas eorum non est efficax ad probandum aliquid quod in contentionem vel dubium venit. Et ideo expositionem eorum non intendo insistere donec cum Dei adiutorio et vita comite super omnes libros canonicos scripserim. Si autem Dominus vitam mihi concesserit, super istos libros et alios qui communiter ponuntur in bibliis, quamvis non sint de canone, scribere potero Domino concedente. Liber autem iste dividitur in tres partes, quia primo aditur de reductione populi sub Iesu filio Iosedech; secundo de instructione reducti per Esdram legis doctorem, vii capitulum; tertio de reedificationem muri per Neemiam ducem, ibi: Verba Neemie. Et isti tres fuerunt sacerdotes ut ex sequentibus apparebit. De secundo autem libro Esdre non intendo ad presens me intromittere ratione iam dicta, scilicet quia non est de canone (Postilla Nicolai de Lyra super librum Edsrae, cap.i, Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali (Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498). British Museum IB.37895, vol. 1, Lyra on Ezra).

170 Incipit liber Tobiae qui tamen non est in canone (Biblia cum glosa ordinaria et expositione Lyre litterali et morali (Basel: Petri & Froben, 1498). British Museum IB.37895, vol. 1).

171 Incipit liber Judith qui tamen non est in canone (Ibid., vol. 1).

172 Incipit liber Sapientiae qui tamen non est in canone (Ibid., vol. 1).

173 Nicholas of Lyra, Postilla literalis in librum Edsrae, BIBLIA SACRA (Lyon, 1589) vol. 2, col. 1276: 'Libros autem Tobie et Judith et Machabeorum licet sint historiales, tamen intendo eos ad presens pertransire quia non sunt de canone apud Iudaeos nec apud Christanos.'

174 Secundus per auctoritates sacre scripture canonice (tamen quod dico propter libros Thobie, Iudith, Sapiencie, Ecclesiastici et Machabeorum, quorum auctoritas non est efficax ad probandum aliquid quod uenit in contencionem, sicut dicit Ieronimus in Prologo galeato, qui premittitur libris Regum.

175 Jerome, Prologus in libris Regum, BIBLIA SACRA VULGATA, vol. 1, 3rd ed., Stuttgart, 1983, p. 365: 'Hoc prologus Scripturarum quasi galeatum principium omnibus libris, quos de hebraeo vertimus in latinum, convenire potest, ut scire valeamus, quicquid extra hos est, inter apocrifa seponendum. Igitur Sapientia, quae vulgo Salomonis inscribitur, et Iesu filii Sirach liber et Iudith et Tobias et Pastor non sunt in canone. Macchabeorum primum librum ebraicum repperi, secundus graecus est, quod et ex ipsa probari potest.'

176 Jerome, Prologus Iudith, BIBLIA SACRA VULGATA, vol. 1, p. 691: 'Apud Hebraeos liber Iudith inter Agiografa legitur; cuius auctoritas ad roboranda illa quae in contentione veniunt, minus idonea iudicatur.'

177 Michael Woodward, Nicholas of Lyra on Beatific Vision, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Notre Dame in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Medieval Institute, Notre Dame, Indiana, April, 1992, p. 177-178, 227-228.

178 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

179 According to Augustine, as is held in Distich IX in various chapters, Holy Scripture ought to be set before the letters and writings of all the bishops and others. Just as fear and honor should be offered to the holy writers of the Bible, that they not be believed to err in anything, such fear and honor should not be offered to anyone after them. According to Jerome in the prologue to the books of Proverbs and Gregory in the Moralia, the books of Judith, Tobias, and Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus and Wisdom should not be taken to confirm any element of faith. For Jerome says, as does Gregory: the Church reads the books of Judith, Tobias, and Maccabees, but it does not accept them among the canonical scriptures (Guillelmus de Occam O.F.M., Opera Plurima (Lyon, 1494-1496), Dialogus de Impero et Pontificia Potestate, Liber iii, tractus i, cap. 16. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Secundum Augustinum, ut habetur Dist. Ix in diversis captis, Scriptura divina est litteris et expositionibus omnium episcoporum et aliorum preponenda. Ita ut solis Scriptoribus biblie deferendus sit hic timor et honor, ut non credantur errare in aliquo: quails honor et timor nulli deferendus est post ipsos. Secundum Hieronymum etiam in prologo in libris Proverb. Et Gregorium in Moralibus liber Judith, Tobiae, et Machabeos, Ecclesiasticus, et liber Sapie non sunt recipiendi ad confrimandum aliquid in fide. Dicit enim Hieronymus sicut Gregorius: Judith, (et) Thobie, et Machabeos libros legit quidem eos Ecclesia, sed inter canonicas Scripturas non recipit (Guillelmus de Occam O.F.M., Opera Plurima (Lyon, 1494-1496), Dialogus de Impero et Pontificia Potestate, Liber iii, tractus i, cap. 16).

180 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

181 The Jews,... according to Jerome in his prologue Galeatus...created four divisions of the books of the Old Testament. The first they called the Law... the second the Prophets,...the third the Hagiography,...the fourth (which the Jews did not place in the canon of Holy Scriptures, but called Apocrypha) they made from the other five books, namely, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobias, and Maccabees, which was divided into two books; (whence) concerning these five books Jerome says in his Prologue to Judith, that their authority is judged less suitable to strengthen those things that come into dispute... And Thomas says the same thing in the Secunda secundae, and Nicholas of Lyra on Tobias, namely, that they are not of such authority, that it cannot be argued from their words over what is of the Faith, as from the other books of Holy Scripture. Whence, perhaps, they have as much authority as the words of the holy Doctors approved by the Church (Sancti Antonini, Archiepiscopi Florentini, Summa Theologica, In Quattuor Partes Distributa, Pars Tertia, Tit xviii, Cap vi, Sect 2, De Dilatatione Praedicationis, Col 1043-1044. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Notandum secundum Hieronymum in prologo Galeato, qui ponitur super libro Regnum, quod librorum Veteris Testamenti Hebraeiquatuor faciunt partes. Et primum appellant Legem:...secundum Prophetas:....tertiam Hagiographa...quartam partem, quam tamen non ponunt ipsi Hebraei in canone Scripturarum sanctarum, sed appellant apocrypha, faciunt de aliis quinque libris, scilicet, Sapientia…Ecclesiasticus…Judith…Tobias…et Machabaeorum, distinctus in duos libros…Unde et de his quinque libris dicit Hieronymus in prologo super Judith, quod auctoritas horum librorum ad roboranda illa, quae in contentione veniunt, minus idonea judicatur...Et idem etiam dicit Thomas, 2a. 2ae, et Nicloaus de Lyra super Tobiam, scilicet, quod isti non sunt tantae auctoritatis, quod ex dictis eorum posset efficaciter argumentari in his, quae sunt fidei, sicut ex aliis libris Scripturae sacrae. Unde forte habent auctoritatem talem, qualem habent dicta sanctorum doctorum approbata ab ecclesia (Sancti Antonini, Archiepiscopi Florentini, Summa Theologica, In Quattuor Partes Distributa, Pars Tertia, Tit xviii, Cap vi, Sect 2, De Dilatatione Praedicationis, Col 1043-1044).

182 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

183 Question 1. First it is sought, how many books of Sacred Scripture there are and what are the orders of these books in their canons. To the first matter it ought to be said that we ask here concerning the books of either testament, old and new at once, which are counted in various ways. Certain people say that there are fifty books of sacred scripture and that they are signified through the fifty loops which were in the border of each curtain of the tabernacle of Moses.775 Peter of Aurora maintains this reckoning. Yet it ought to be said that it is not fitting since it is necessary that it divide some books and unify others, for if it be added according to a different count, by not dividing books, unless done so according to what is commonly accepted, one could only arrive at forty-four and six books would be lacking, as will be declared below. To this end therefore, that it might fill out those six, it will be necessary to divide some books that are not normally divided, of which there is one in the Old Testament, namely the twelve minor prophets. But there are two in the New Testament, namely the Epistles of Paul and the Canonical Epistles. It ought to be said about the book of twelve minor prophets that it is single in the Old Testament and so placed among the Jews in their canon as Jerome says in his prologue to the Books of Kings which begins: Twenty-two letters. Although within that book, any one of the twelve prophets might have its own book, which wouldn't deserve the title of 'book' on its own on account of its smallness. But if they divide the book of the twelve prophets, it is fitting that it be divided into twelve according to the number of their prophets and then there will be not just fifty but fifty-five books.
On the division of the books of the Old Testament, there is a variety of opinions since we are accustomed to count in one way and the Jews in another. The reason for this variety is that some books are kept by us which are never found among the Hebrews, such as the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, and second Maccabees, as Jerome says in his prologue. The second reason for this variety is that certain books, although they are found among the Hebrews, nevertheless are not placed in their canon, such as the Book of Judith and Tobit, as Jerome says in his prologue. Our reckoning is universal, because all of the books, as many as the Church reads and accepts, are counted of whatever subsection or canon they are, even if they are considered in the number of Apocrypha among the Jews, and because those books are counted according to the divisions which they commonly hold among the Latins and Greeks. In this way forty-four books are found, namely thirty-six of the Old Testament and eight of the New. They are counted thus: five books of Moses, one of Joshua, one of Judges, one of Ruth, four of Kings, two of Chronicles, three books of Ezra (we add there that one of them is very apocryphal about which the Church does not at all concern itself or read, nor does any of the doctors mention it, for this reason we do not place it in the number of books), one of David (namely the Psalms), which although it is divided into many parts for use by the Church and is considered divided into five sections among the Hebrews, it is nevertheless called a single book by both, one of Tobit, one of Judith, one of Esther, two of Maccabees, three of Solomon (namely Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs), one of Job, one of Wisdom, one of Ecclesiasticus which is called Jesus son of Sirach, four of the Great Prophets (namely Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel), and one of Lamentations of Jeremiah (as if divided from the book of its prophet), one of Baruk (who was a secretary of Jeremiah) on of the twelve minor Prophets (who are all contained in one book. And so there are at once thirty-six. Then the eight books of the New Testament complete the number forty-four books of all Sacred Scripture. Some place only thirty books of all scripture, namely twenty-two books of the Old and eight of the New Testament. How these are counted is clear in Jerome's prologue and will be declared in the following inquiry. Some establish thirty-two books of the New and Old Testament, namely eight of the New and twenty-four of the Old.. Jerome writes concerning this in the aforementioned prologue and it will be explained in the following question.
Question 2: There are some books that, although they are maintained by the Church,. they nevertheless are not placed in the canon, since the Church does not associate the faith with them, nor does it order that they be regularly read or received, and does not judge those who do not accept them as disobedient or faithless. This is on account of two things: first, that the Church is not certain concerning their authors, nay, rather, it does not know, whether [their writers], inspired by the Holy Spirit, composed them... But, since there are doubts surrounding some books, concerning their authors, whether they were moved by the Holy Spirit, their authority is taken away and the Church does not place them in the canon of its books. Secondly, since the Church is not certain about such books, whether heretics added or subtracted something beyond that which they hold from their own authors. But such books the Church accepts, allowing individuals to read them: For it also reads them in its offices on account of the many faithful things that are contained in them. Yet it obligates nobody necessarily to believe what is contained there; as is from the books of Wisdom,...Ecclesiasticus,...Maccabees,...Judith...and Tobias. For, although those are received by Christians, and a demonstration taken from them might sometimes be useful, the Church maintains those books; yet they are not useful against heretics or Jews for proving those things that might come into doubt: Just as Jerome says in his prologue on Judith, namely, among the Hebrews the book of Judith is read as hagiography, whose authority is judged less suitable to strengthen those things that come into dispute. These things having been presupposed, it ought to be said that in the Old Testament certain books are placed in the canon and certain books are not. Those that are not placed, such as Judith, Tobit, the two books of Maccabees, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus do not have any subsection or division within themselves; those that are in the canon do. It should be known that books placed in the canon have three subsections, the first of legal, the second of prophetal, the third of hagiographical books. In the first subsection of legal books are placed only the five books of Moses, which are called Thorach among the Jews, that is, the law. Others call them humas, that is, the five, since there are five books. And to this name corresponds a certain Greek name among us, namely, Pentateuch which means the five books of the law. And they are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. They are called the law because they contain only the law, or at least chiefly the law, since in them certain things of their history are inserted pertaining to those to whom the law was given. The second subsection of books is called prophetal or of the Prophets and contains eight books. The first is the book of Joshua; second Judges with which they place the book of Ruth; the third is the book of Samuel, which we call first and second Kings; fourth is Malachi, that is the Book of Kings, or according to other Malachoth, that is, Kingdoms. But, as Jerome says it is better called Malachi, that is Kings, than Malachoth, that is Kingdoms; fifth, Isaiah; sixth, Jeremiah; seventh, Ezekiel; eighth, the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets, which among the Hebrews is a single volume. The Book of Daniel is not placed among the prophetal books but in the third subsection, hagiography. In this subsection are nine books. First is the book of Job; second David, namely the Psalter, which among the Hebrews is divided by five sections, but nevertheless is gathered in a single volume; third, Proverbs which is the first of the three books of Solomon and among the Hebrews is called Misle, that is parables; fourth, Ecclesiastes of the same Solomon, which among the Hebrews is called choeler, among the Greeks Ecclesiastes, among the Latins the haranguer. Nevertheless, the Greek name remains in use by us since the Greeks imposed the names on these books before they came to the Latins. Therefore many of the names will always remain among us. Fifth is the Song of Songs, which in Hebrew is called sirhasim; sixth, Daniel; seventh, Chronicles, divided among us into two which among the Hebrews is called Dibreaiamim, that is words of days, among the Greeks Paralipomenon, and is genitive plural of the participle and means of those things omitted or left behind, since there it is treated of those completions omitted in the other books. Therefore Jerome calls it the chronicle of all divine scripture. Eighth is Ezra which is divided into two books and within it is contained the other book of Nehemiah. Ninth is the book of Esther, and thus is the third subsection, hagiography, completed. There are therefore three subsections of books of the Old Testament and in the first is contained five books; in the second, eight; in the third nine; and so there are twenty-two books. Some place eleven books in the third subsection, namely, they place the book of Ruth with the aforementioned ones, separating it from the other book of Judges; they also place the book threnorum, or the Lamentations of Jeremiah, there which is called Cinoth among the Hebrews who separate it from the book of the prophet Jeremiah, and so there are twenty-four books in the canon of the Old Testament. Concerning all of these things Jerome writes in his prologue. There remain many doubts surrounding these things, namely, why are there three subsections of books and not more or fewer and why are certain books called legal, others prophetal, and others hagiographical and why are they all not known by the same name and why are they placed in this subsection but not that and so on concerning many other doubts which will be omitted for the present. Concerning this we will make clear very extensively in the exposition on Jerome's prologue, which is complete on this material and is placed at the beginning of first Kings.
Question 3: This ought to be considered to understand that books may be called Apocrypha in two ways. One way, that it is not established concerning their authors, whether they wrote with the Holy Spirit composing, and it is not established concerning everything that is contained it them, whether it is all true. Yet there is not something in them that is demonstrably false or is very much suspected of falsehood. In another way they are called Apocrypha, it is not established concerning their authors, whether they were inspired by God and moreover many things that are held [in these books] are either demonstrably false or are very much suspected of error. Understanding in the first way that these books are Apocrypha, Scripture does not place them in the canon of its books, that faith ought of necessity be applied to them, yet it allows those wishing to do so to read what they read, since nothing unsuitable seems to result: also the Church itself does not read them. Understanding in the second way that these books are Apocrypha, not only does the Church not place them in its canon, it does not place them with its own books in any way, not does it favor those who read them; [although it does not altogether prohibit them. Yet it declares that those books are very much suspected of falsehood, that it might warn people when they read them and that they might see to what they should apply their trust.] Certain books are Apocrypha in the first way, which are placed outside the canon of the Old Testament, yet they are counted among the books of Holy Scripture, namely, the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobias, and Maccabees, for concerning their authors, it is not established for the Church, whether they wrote them with the Holy Spirit composing; yet it did not find anything false in them or very much suspected of falsehood; but rather, there is abundant holy and faithful doctrine in them. For this reason the Church reads them and counts them among its books. Thus Jerome says in his Prologue to Judith that the book of Judith which is of the Apocrypha...(Alphonsi Tostati, Episcopi Abulensis, Commentariorum in Sanctum Iesu Christi Euangelium secundum Matthaeum, Praefatio, Quaest. 1, 2, 3. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Quaest. I. Quaeritur ergo primo, quot sunt libri sacrae scripturae, & qui sunt ordines ipsorum librorum in canonibus suis. Ad primum dicendum, quod hic quaerimus de libris utriusque testamenti simul noui & veteris, qui varie computantur. Quidam dicunt quinquaginta libros sacrae scripturae esse: & dicunt eos significatos per quinquaginta ansulas, quae erant in ora cuiuslibet cortinae tabernaculi Moysi. Exod. 26. Et istam computationem tenet Petrus in Aurora. Dicendum tamen; quod non est conueniens: quia necesse est, quod aliquos libros diuidat, & aliquos uniat, Nam si computetur secundum aliam computationem, non diuidendo libros, nisi secundum quod communiter accipitur, non poterit perueniri nisi ad 44. libros, & desic sex. Ut infra declarabitur. Ad hoc ergo, quod suppleat istos sex, necessee est, quod diuidat aliquos libros, qui non consueuerunt diuidi: de quibus est unus in veteri testamento scil. lib. 12. prophetarum minorum. Duo autem sunt in nouo. scil. liber Epistolarum Pauli & liber canonicarum Epistolarum. De libro duodecim prophetarum minorum dicendum, quod unicus est in veteri testamento: & sic ponitur apud Iudaes in canone suo, ut ait Hieronymus in prologo Galeato super libros Regum, qui incipit: Viginti & duas literas: licet intra istum librum quilibet illorum duodecim prophetarum librum proprium habeat: qui propter paruitatem per se nomen voluminis non meretur. Si autem isti diuidant librum duodecim prophetarum, oportet illum diuidi in duodecim iuxta numerum ipsorum prophetarum, & tunc non solum erunt 50. sed 55. libri...
Circa diuisionem librorum veteris testamenti est diuersitas: quia aliter solemus nos communiter computare, & aliter Iudaei. Ratio diuersitatis est: quia aliqui libri apud nos habentur, qui nunquam apud Hebraeos inueniantur, sicut liber Sapient. & Ecclesasticus, & secundus liber Machab. Ut ait Hieron. In prologo Galeato: Secunda diuersitatis ratio est: quia quidam libri, licet apud Hebraeos inueniantur, tamen in suo canone non ponuntur, sicut liber Iudith, & Tobiae, ut ait Hieron. in eodem prologo Galeato. Computatio autem nostra communis est; quod computentur omnes libri quotquot Ecclesia legit, & suscepit, cuiuscunque ordinis, vel canonis sunt: etiamsi apud Iudaeos in apocryphorum numero deputentur, etiam quod isti libri computentur secundum sectiones, quas communiter apud Latinos, & Graecos habent. Et hoc modo inuenientur 44. libri. scil. 30. & sex veteris testamenti, & octo noui testamenti. Et computantur sic. scil. quinque libri, Moysis, unus liber Iousue, unus Iudicum, unus Ruth, quatuor libri Regum, duo libri Paralipomenon. 3. libri Esdrae opponentes ibi unum valdeapocryphum, de quo Ecclesia nunquam curauit, nec legit, nec quisquam doctorum solennium illum unquam allegat: ideo nec nos in numero libroru ponimus: unus liber Dauíd. Scil. Psalmorum, qui licet apud nos in usu Ecclesiae sit in multas partes diuisus, & apud Hebraeos quinque incisionibus habeatur distinctus, utrobique tamen unicus liber dicitur: unus liber Tobiae, unus Iudith, unus Esther, duo libri Machabaeoru, tres libri Salomonis. scil. Parabolae Ecclesiastes, & Cantica Canticorum, unus liber Iob, unus Sapientiae, unus Ecclesiastici, qui vocatur Iesus filius Sirach, quaruor libri Magnorum Prophetarum. scil. Isai. Ierem. Ezech. Daniel. unus liber Threnorum, siue lamentationum Iere. Quasi a libro prophetiae suae distinctus est, unus liber Baruch, qui suit notarius Ierem. unus liber duodecim Prophetarum minorum, qui omnes sub uno clauduntur volumine. Et sic sunt simul 36. Deinde octo libri noui testamenti, & complent numerum 44 librorum totius sacrae scripturae. Alii ponunt solum triginta libros totius scripturae nouae, & veteris. scil. viginti &. Duos libros veteris testamenti, & octo noui testamenti. Qui quomodo computentur, patet per Hieronymo in prologo Galeato, & declarabitur sequenti quaestione. Alii ponunt triginta & duos libros noui & veteris: testamenti, scilicet, octo nouos, & viginti quatuor veteris: de quibus Hieronymus in dicto prologo, & patet sequenti quaestione.
Quaest 2: Alii sunt libri, qui licet ab Ecclesia teneantur, in canone tamen non ponuntur, quia non adhibet illis Ecclesia hanc fidem; nec iubet illos regulariter legi, aut recipi, & non recipientes non judicat inobedientes aut infideles. Hoc autem est propter duo. Primo, quia Ecclesia non est certa de auctoribus eorum; immo nescit, an Spiritu sancto inspirati scriptores eorum dictauerunt eos...
Cum autem dubitatur circa aliquos libros, de scriptoribus eorum, an Scriptu sancto moti sint, adimitur auctoritas illorum, & non ponit illos Ecclesia in canone librorum suorum. Secundo, quia Ecclesia non est certa circa tales libros, an ultra id, quod habuerunt a propriis auctoribus, haeretici aliquid miscuerint, vel subtraxerint. Tales autem libros Ecclesia recipit permittens eos singulis fidelibus legere: ipsa quoque in officiis suis illos legit propter multa devota quae in illis habentur. Neminem tamen obligat ad necessario credendum id, quo ibi habetur; sicut est de libro Sapientiae Salomonis, & de Ecclesiastico, & de libro Machabaeorum, & de Iudith, & de Tobia. Isti enim licet a Christianis recipiantur, & probatio ex eis sumpta sit aliqualiter essicax (efficax ?): quia Ecclesia istos libros tenet; contra haereticos tamen, aut Hebraeos, ad probandum ea, quae in dubium veniunt, non sunt efficacies: sicut ait Hieronymus in prologo super Iudith, scilicet, apud Hebraeos liber Iudith inter agiographa legitur, cuius auctoritas ad roboranda illa, quae in contentione veniunt, minus idonea iudicatur. His praesuppositis dicendum, quod in veteri testamento quidam libri ponuntur in canone, quidam non. Illi qui non ponuntur sicut Iudith, & Tobias, & duo libri Machabaeorum, Sapientia, & Ecclesiasticus non habent inter se aliquem ordinem, vel diuisionem, qui autem ponuntur in canone, habent ordinem. Sciendum autem, quod libri positi in canone habent tres ordiens, primus est legalium, secundus prophetalium, tertius agiographorum. In primo ordine legalium ponuntur soli quinque libri Moysis, qui apud Iudaeos vocantur thorach, id est, lex. Alii vocant eos humas, id est, quinarium, quia quinque libri sunt. Et huic nomini correspondet quoddam nomen Graecum apud nos scil. Pentateuchus, quod interpretatur, id est quinque libri legis. Et isti sunt Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numerus & Deuteronomium. Qui vocantur leges, eo quod solam legem contitinent, vel saltem principaliter legem, cum in eis interdum quaedam ipsoru historiae inserentur pertinentes interdum ad eos, quibus dabatur lex. Ordo secundus librorum vocatur prophetalium, siue Prophetarum, & continet libros octo. Primus est liber Iosue, secundus est liber Iudicum, cum quo ponunt librum Ruth, tertius est liber Samuel, quem nos vocamus primum, & secundum libros Regum: quartus est Melachim, id est, liber Regum. Vel secundum alios Malachoth, id est, regnorum. Sed ut ait Hieronym. melius vocatur liber Melachim, id est Regum, quae Malachoth, id est regnorum: quintus est Isaias: sextus Ierem: septimus Ezechiel: octauus liber duodecim Prophetarum minorum, qui apud Hebraeos unum volumen est. Liber autem Danielis non ponitur inter prophetales, sed inter agiographos in tertio ordine: licet ille Propheta suerit. Causa huius declarata est supra prologum Galeatum. Tertius ordo librorum est agiographorum: & in hoc ordine sunt nouem libri, primus est liber Iob: secundus liber David. scil. Psalterium, quod apud Hebraeos quinque incisionibus diuisum est: uno tame volumine comprehenditur: tertius est liber Proverbiorum, qui est primus de tribus libris Salomonis, & apud Hebraeos vocatur Misle, id est parabolae: quartus liber est Ecclesiastes ipsius Salomon, qui apud Hebraeos vocatur choeler, apud Graecos Eccelsiates, apud Latinos concionator. Manet tamen nobis in usu nomen Graecum: quia Graeci prius imposuerunt nomina istis libris, quam peruenirent ad Latinos: ideo pleraque eorum manent semper apud nos: quintus est Cantica Canticorum, qui Hebraice vocatur sirhasirim: sextus est Daniel: septimus est liber Paralipom. diuisus apud nos in duos, quid apud Hebraeos vocatur Dibreaiamim, id est, verba dierum, apud Graecos vocatur Paralipomenon, & est genitiuus pluralis numeri participii & interpretatur omissorum, vel relictorum: quia ibi agitur de suppletionnibus omissorum in aliis libris: ideo Hieron. vocat eum chronicon totius diuinae scripturae. Octauus est Esdras, qui in duos libros diuisus est, & sub eo continetur alius liber Neemiae. Nonus est liber Esther. Et ita completur tertius ordo agiographum. Sunt ergo tres ordines librorum veteris testamenti: & in primo continentur quinque libri: in secundo octo: in tertio nouem, & ita sunt viginti duo libri. Alii autem ponunt in tertio ordine 11 libros, s.cum praedictis ponunt librum Ruth distinguentes eum ab alio Iudicum, ponunt etiam librum Threnorum, sive lamentationem Ierem. Qui vocatur apud Hebraeos Cinoth, distinguetes eum a libro prophetarium Ierem. & sic sunt 24 libri in canone veteris testamenti. De his omnibus Hieronymus in prologo Galeato. Multa dubia circa haec restabant, scilicet, quare sint tres ordines librorum & non plures, nec pauciores & quare quidam legales, alii prophetales, alii agiographi appellantur, & non omnes eodem niomine, & quare isti ponuntur in isto ordine & non in alio, & sic de multis aliis dubiis, quae in praesenti omittuntur, de quibus latissime declaranimus in expositione prologi Galeati, qui totus est de hac materia, & ponitur in principio primi libri Regum.
Quaest 3: Ad intelligentiam huius considerandum, quod libri dicuntur apocryphi dupliciter. Uno modo, quia non constat de eorum scriptoribus, an Spiritu sancto dictatnte scripserint, & etiam non constat de omnibus, quae in eis habentur, an vera sint. Non est tamen in eis aliquid, quod manifeste falsum sit, vel quod valde suspectum sit de falsitate. Alio modo dicuntur libri apocryphi, de quorum auctoribus non constat, an a Deo sint inspirati, & insuper multa, quae habentur in ipsis libris, vel sunt manifeste falsa, vel de errore valde suspecta. Accipiendo primo modo libros apocryphos, scriptura non ponit illos in canone librorum suorum, ita ut debeat illis fides de necessitate adhiberi; permittit tamen volentibus legere, quod legant, quia non videtur inde sequi aliquod inconveniens: ipsa quoque Ecclesia illos legit. Accipiendo secundo modo apocryphos libros, non solum Ecclesia non ponit illos in canone, immo nec aliquo modo ponit eos cum libris suis, nec legit, nec legentibus favet: licet non omnino prohibeat. Annunciat tamen illos libros esse suspectos valde de falso, ut caveant quando legerint, & videant quibus fidem adhibeant. Primo modo sunt apocryphi libri quidam, qui ponuntur extra canonem veteris testamenti, computantur tamen inter libros sacrae scripturae, scilicet, liber Sapientiae, & Ecclesiasticus, & Iudith, & Tobias, & libri Machabaeorum: de auctoribus enim horum non constat Ecclesiae, an Spiritu sancto dictante scripserint: non tamen reperit in eis aliquod falsum, aut valde suspectum de falsitate; sed potius in eis est doctrina copiosa sacta, & devota: ideo Ecclesia legit illos, & computat inter libros suos. Sic dicit Hieronymus in prologo super Iudith. (Alphonsi Tostati, Eposcopi Abulensis, Commentaiorum in Sanctae Iesu Christi Euangelium secundum Matthaeum, Praefatio, Quaestio I, De numero & diusione librorum sacrae scriptura; Quaestio II, De ordine librorum veteris testamenti; Quaestio III, De ordine librorum noui testamenti).

184 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

185 In his prologue to the Books of Kings, Jerome says there are twenty-two books of the Old Testament. The Hebrews divide the Scripture of the Old Testament into three parts, that is into law, prophets, and hagiography. The five books of Moses they call the law, the other eight books, that is Joshua, the Book of Judges, under which they include the Book of Ruth, and the Books of Kings which they divide into two volumes, also Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekial, and the book of the twelve prophets they call the prophetal books. To hagiography they say pertain the last nine books, that is the Book of Job, the Psalter, the three books of Solomon, Chronicles, Ezra, and Esther. Hagiography is so called from hagios, that is holy, and graph, writing, thus holy writing. They call these books canonical and the others apocryphal (Denys the Carthusian, Enneration In Genesis, Cap I, Articulus IV, De Multiplici Distinctione Atque Divisione Totius Divinae Scripturae. Translation by Benjamin Penciera, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Sicut in prologo super libros Regum sanctus ait Hieronymus, viginti duo sunt libri veteris Testamenti. Hebraei enim dividunt Scripturam veteris Testamenti in tria, hoc est in legem, in Prophetas, et in hagiographa. Itaque quinque libros Moysis vocant legem, alios octo libros, videlicet Josue,et librum Judicum, sub quo comprehendunt et librum Ruth, et libros Regum quos dividunt in duo volumina, Isaiam quoque, Jeremiam, Ezechielem ac librum duodecim Prophetarum, appellant prophetales. Ad hagiographa vero asserunt pertinere alios novem libros, utpote libram Job, Psalterium, tria volumina Salomonis, Paralipomenon, Esdram et Esther. Hagiographon autem dicitur ab agios, quod est sacrum, et grafh, scriptura, quasi scriptura sacra. Hos libros vocant canonicos, alios vero apocryphos (Denys the Carthusian, Enneration In Genesis, Cap I, Articulus IV, De Multiplici Distinctione Atque Divisione Totius Divinae Scripturae).

Now that book is not counted among the canonical scriptures, nevertheless, Mother Church has no doubts about its truth: on account of this she receives and establishes that it is to be read not for the confirmation and proof of those things that come into contention, that is of those things that are to be believed, concerning which there is contentious debate between Catholics and nonbelievers, but rather for the instruction of morals. For this book is historical but also very much moral and doctrinal (Denys the Carthusian, Proemium, Judith and Tobit. Translation by Benjamin Penciera, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Denique liber iste non computatur inter Scripturas canonicas. Tamen de ejus veritate non dubitat mater Ecclesia: propter quod eum recepit, et legendum instituit, non ad confirmationem atque probationem eorum qum veniunt in contintionem, id est credendorum, de quibus inter Catholicos et incredulos exstat disputationis contentio, sed ad morurn informationem. Est namque, hic liber historicus, etiam valde moralis ac doctrinalis (Denys the Carthusian, Proemium, Judith and Tobit).

Now that book is not to counted of the canon, that is among the canonical Scriptures, although there is no doubt as to its truth. And it fits very well with the Book of Proverbs of Solomon in its meaning and style. About this Jerome writes that he found this book among the Hebrews, not called Ecclesiasticus, as it is by us, but entitled Parabola. And as in the books of Solomon, so also here wisdom is received in various ways: sometimes as wisdom uncreated and unborn, sometimes as wisdom uncreated and born, sometimes as wisdom created, infused, or acquired, sometimes as some sort of virtue, as will become clear in due course (Denys the Carthusian, Prologus, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach). Translation by Benjamin Penciera, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Denique liber iste non est de canone, id est, inter Scripturas canonicas computandus; quamvis de ejus veritate non dubitetur. Et convenit multum in sensu. modoque procedendi cum libro Proverbiorum Salomonis. Propter quod scribit Hieronymus, se reperisse hunc librum aptid Hebræos, non tamen vocatum Ecclesiasticum, ut apud nos, sed Parabolas prænotatum seu intitulatum. Et sicut in libris Salomonis, ita et hic sapientia variis rnodis et extense accipitur: quandoque pro sapientia increata atque ingenita, interdum pro Sapientia increata et genita, aliquando pro sapientia creata, infusa aut acquisita, nonumquam pro quacumque virtute, prout in processu patebit (Denys the Carthusian, Prologus, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach).

186 Catholic Encyclopedia, 16 Volumes (New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1913). See also New Advent at www.newadvent.org.

187 Nevertheless, it ought to be said, just as above concerning the books, that since the Church has already grown into the perfect man, although it be equally powerful as before, yet it is not given to it to grow as before, in accordance with its stature (a), namely because it has three dimensions, length, breadth, and height or depth; according to these three dimensions the City of the Church, even before the death of John the Evangelist, is described to have been measured. And this equally: and he measured the city (he says) with his rod, twelve thousand stadia, prefiguring the twelve volumes in Scripture and canonical authority of the future Church, according to which Jerome speaks in his prologue on Kings. Just as (he says) there are twenty-two letters through which we write in Hebrew all that we say and human speech is comprehended by their beginnings, so are there considered to be twenty-two volumes, by which, just like letters and beginnings in the doctrine of God, the still tender and nursing infancy of the just man might be nourished. The first of these is called Bresith which we call Genesis. These things Jerome says. But the length, breadth, and height of this city are equal, the text says. Therefore, just as with regards to the height which is charity it cannot grow any further than with God and neighbor. Nor with regards to its height or depth, which is hope in the Rewarder of all things. How can it increase its length, which is the catholic faith, beyond the number of fourteen articles contained in Symbol, in one dispersedly written book of twenty-two volumes? The Holy Spirit speaks very strongly there in the conclusion of all canonical Scripture Let him who desires take the water of life without price. I warn every one who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if any one adds to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book, and if any one takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book (Rev. 22:17-19) (Thomae Waldensis, Doctrinale Fidei Catholicae, Tomus Primus, Articulus Secundus, cap. 2, p. col. 353. First published in Venice 1757. Republished in 1967 by Gregg Press Limited. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Dicendum tamen sicut prius de libris, quod cum Ecclesia jam creverit in perfectum virum, quamuis sit AEQUE POTENS, UT OLIM; non tamen datur ei crescere, ut olim, secundum staturam (a): scilicet, quod tres species habeat, longitudinem, latitudinem, & altitudinem, sive profunditatem; secundum quas tres, etiam ante mortem Joannis Evangelistae, Civitas Ecclesiae describitur esse dimensa. Et hoc aequaliter: & mensus est civitatem (inquit) de arundine aurea per stadia duodecim millia, praefigens scilicet Ecclesiae futurae duodecim volumina in Scriptura & authoritate Canonica, secundum quod recitat super lib. Regum, in prologo galeato, Hieronymus. 'Quomodo (inquit) viginti duo elementa sunt, per quae scribimus hebraice omne quod loquimur, & eorum initiis vox humana comprehenditur; ita viginti duo volumina supputantur, quibus quasi literis & exordiis in Dei doctrina, tenera adhuc & lactens viri justi eruditur infantia. Primus eorum vocatur Bresith, quem nos Genesim dicimus &c.' Haec Hieronymus. Sed hujus Civitatis longitudo, latitudo, & altitudo, aequalia sunt, dicit textus. Ergo sicut secundum latitudinem, quae est charitas, non amplius potest crescere, quam penes Deum & proximum; nec penes altitudinem sive profundum ejus, quae est spes in omnium remuneratorem; quomodo potest augere sibi longitudinem, quae est fides catholica, ultra numerum quatuordecim articulorum contentorum in Symbolo, in uno libro vigintiduorum voluminum sparsim descripto? maxime dicente ibi Spiritu Sancto in conclusione omnis Scripturae Canonicae: 'Qui vult, accipiat aquam vitae gratis. Contestor ego omni audienti verba prophetiae libri hujus: Si quis apposuerit ad haec, apponet Deus super illum plagas scriptas in libro isto, & si quis diminuerit de verbis libri prophetiae hujus, auseret Deus partem ejus de libro vitae' (Thomae Waldensis, Doctrinale Fidei Catholicae, Tomus Primus, Articulus Secundus, cap. 2, col. 353. First published in Venice 1757. Republished in 1967 by Gregg Press Limited).

188 Jerome can be contradictory to himself, as he teaches in his prologue that those books outside the canon are gathered amongst the Hagiography. Because if it is not pleasing that this book, which not even Erasmus emended, be erroneous. Let us say that among the Jews Hagiography is two-fold, just as we said above that apocrypha is twofold (i.e. may be understood in one of two ways). Certain things are Hagiography, that is writings of the saints, whose authority is suitable for strengthening those things that are of the faith: Hagiographies of this sort are in the biblical canon. But there are other Hagiographies (i.e. holy writings or writings of the saints) whose authority is not suitable for strengthening the assertions of the faith, although they are considered true and holy, just as the writings of Augustine and Jerome are considered, which are also called Hagiography (holy writings or writings of the saints). Hagiographies of this sort among the Hebrew are the stories of Judith and Tobias and Ecclesiasticus and first Maccabees, which books, although they keep and read them, yet they do not count them among the canonical books, but among the Apocrypha, not because they are false, but because their secret origin was not apparent to the entire Synagogue. But third and fourth Ezra, second Maccabees, the Hymn of the three children, and the stories of Susanna and Bela and the Dragon either they do not keep or even reject, and report that they were made up. But the Christian Church, on account of the authority of certain ancient scriptures which are read to make use of evidence from stories of this kind, reads these same scriptures with pious faith, and furthermore does not reject or despise them, even if it does not receive these books with authority equal to the canonical scriptures (Jean Driedo, De Ecclesiasticis Scripturis et Dogmatibus, Libri quator. fol. XXI?XXII. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Hieronymus potest sibi ipsi esse contrarius, ut doceat in prologo galeato, libros illos extra canonem inter Hagiographa collocari. Quod si non placeat mêdosum esse codicem, quem nec Erasmus emendauit, dicemus duplicia esse apud Hebræos Hagiographa, sicut & in superioribus diximus, duplicia esse apocrypha. Hagiographa, id est, sanctorum scripta, quæ dam sunt, quorum auctoritas idonea est ad corro borandum ea, quæ sunt fidei: hujus generis sunt Hagiographa in canone Bibliae. Alia vero sunt Hagiographa quorum auctoritas ad assertiones Fidei corroborandas non est idonea, quamvis habeantur vera et sancta, sicut habentur Hieronymi et Augustini scripta, quae vocantur Hagiographa. Et hujus generis apud Hebr. sunt historiae Judith et Tobiae, etiam Ecclesiasticus, et Maccab. primus: quos sane libros quamvis habeant et legant, non tamen inter canonicos libros connumerant, sed inter Apocrypha, non quod falsi sint, sed quod tales sint, quorum occulta origo non claruit toti eorum Synagogae; 3m autem et 4m. Esdr., 2m. Maccab., trium puerorum Hymnum, Susannae, ac Belis Draconisque historias, aut non habent, ant prorsus rejiciunt, et confictas tradunt....Ecclesia tamen Christiana propter auctoritatem veterum quorundam Sanctorum, qui leguntur usi fuisse testimoniis ex hujusmodi historiis, easdem pia fide legit, et non prorsus rejicit, nec contemnit, tametsi non pari auctoritate recipiat illos libros cum Scripturis canonicis (Jean Driedo, De Ecclesiasticis Scripturis et Dogmatibus Libri quator. fol. XXI-XXII).

189 What are the books of the Old Testament? Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two books of Chronicles, four books of Ezra, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Job, the Psalter, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel, the Twelve Prophets, two books of Maccabees. Some of these are sometimes called Apocrypha (that is, hidden) because it was allowed to read them privately at home each according to his own inclination. In the Church they are not read publically, nor is any of them rewarded with authority. The apocryphal books are: third and fourth Ezra, Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruk, and the two books of Maccabees. All the others are called canonical, since they are of irrefutable authority, even among the Jews. And so all the books of the Old Testament number thirty-seven, that is twenty-eight canonical and nine apocrypha (John Ferus, The Examination of Those Who Were to Be Ordained for the Sacred Ministry of the Church. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Quae sunt veteris testamenti volumina? Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numerorum liber, Deuteronomium, Josue, Judicum, Ruth, Regum libri iv., Paralipomenon libri ii., Esdrae libri iv., Tobias, Judith, Hester, Job, Psalterium, Proverbia, Ecclesiastes, Cantica Canticorurn, liber Sapientiae, Ecclesiasticus, Esaias, Hieremias, Threni, Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel, liber Duodecim Prophetarum, Machabaeorum ii. Horum aliqui olim dicebantur Apocryphi, (id est, occulti,) propterea quod domi quidem et privatim, pro suo cujusque animo, fas esset eos legere: in Ecclesia autem publice non recitabantur, nec quisquam eorum auctoritate premebatur.] Sunt (autem hi libri Apocryphi,): 3 et 4 Esdr., Tobias, Judith, liber Sapientiae, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, et Macchabaeorum libri duo. Omnes alii dicuntur canonici, quia sunt irrefutabilis auctoritatis etiam apud Judaeos. Omnes (igitur) libri veteris testamenti numero (sunt) xxxvii., (hoc est,) canonicorum xxviii., Apocryphoruum ix. Olim vero in Ecclesia Apocryphi publice non recitabantur, nec quisquam auctoritate eorum premebatur; sed domi quidem et privatim, pro suo cujusque animo, fas erat illos legere (John Ferus, In Examine Ordinand.: Censur. Diaconandorum).

190 Behold how Jerome connects Pastor to the book of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Judith and Tobit bestowing on it the same authority since they contain the same power to build up devotion, but he also calls all of these apocrypha, since they are not from the canon and in the first and highest authority of the Church. Yet they are not in the other sense of apocrypha to be openly condemned, like the book of Enoch, but in the first known understanding of apocrypha, most praiseworthy after Holy Eloquence (i.e. Scripture) (Jacob Faber Stapulensis, Praef in Libri Trium Virorum et Virg. Spiritual. Translation by Benjamin Panciera, The Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame).
Latin Reference: Ecce quomodo connectit Hieronymus Pastorem libro Sapientiae, Ecclesiastico, libro Judithae, et Tobiae, eandem tribuens, ei auctoritatem, quia eandem continent ad aedificationem pietatis virtutem, sed et hos omnes solum nominat Apocryphos, quia de canone non sunt, et in prima supremaque Ecclesiae auctoritate in alia tamen apocryphorum plane demnadorum non sunt; sicut nec liber Henoch, sed in prima apocryphorum nota, et laudabilissima post S. Eloquia significacione (Jacob Faber Stapulensis, Praef in Libri Trium Virorum et Virg. Spiritual).

191 Verum quia quibusdam in locis ubi intergra est littera & incorrupta: miru in modum fauet Christianæ religioni: Idcirco reliquos libros totius Veteris testamenti e Chalaica lingua in latinam verti fecimus: & diligentissime cum sua latina traductione conscriptos in publica Complutensis nostræ Universitatis Bibliotheca reponi. At vero libri extra canonê: quos Ecclesia pontius ad ædificationem populi: q~s ad autoritatem ecclesiasticorum dogmatum confirmandam recipit: Græcam tm~ habent scripturam: sed cum duplici latina interpretatione: altera beati Hieronymi: altera interlineari de verbo ad verbû: eo modo quo in cæteris. Hæc autem de numero linguarum huius libri oportuit in vniuersum prælibasse (Prologus, Ximenes' Complutensian Polyglot Bible (1514-1517).

192 B.F. Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (Cambridge: MacMillan, 1889), pp. 470-471.

193 New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: McGraw Hill, 1967), The Polyglot Bibles.

194 Bruce Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York: Oxford, 1957), p. 180.

195 Ibid., p. 180.

196 B.F. Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan, 1889), p. 478.

197 Bruce Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York: Oxford University, 1957), pp. 50-51.